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Patient and environmental factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs

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  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 2 Minnesota Urolith Center, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 5 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 10330.
  • | 6 Hill's Science and Technology Center, 1035 NE 43rd St, Topeka, KS 66601.
  • | 7 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 8 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 9 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 10 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment are risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—1,074 dogs that formed calcium oxalate uroliths and 1,724 control dogs that did not have uroliths.

Procedure—A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information from veterinarians and owners within 1 year of the date of urolith detection concerning signalment and environment of the dogs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios to assess whether breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment were risk factors for calcium oxalate urolith formation.

Results—Middle-aged (8- to 12-year-old) castrated male dogs had increased risk for formation of calcium oxalate uroliths. Urolith formation was also associated with increasing age. Dogs of certain breeds, including Miniature and Standard Schnauzer, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, and Miniature and Toy Poodle, had increased risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths. Overweight dogs also had increased risk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of patient and environmental risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of this disease. Modification of environmental factors and body weight may minimize calcium oxalate urolith formation and recurrence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:515–519)