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Osseous sequestration in cattle: 110 cases (1987–1997)

L. William ValentinoDepartment of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Guy St. JeanDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.
Present address is the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, West Indies.

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David E. AndersonDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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André DesrochesDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Karl KerstingDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Mandi J. LopezDepartment of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

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Steve B. AdamsDepartment of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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John HuhnDepartment of Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.
Present address is Pfizer Central Research and Development, Bldg 200, Room 4063, Eastern Point Rd, Groton, CT 06340.

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P. O. Eric MuellerDepartment of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

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Noah D. CohenDepartment of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for development of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—110 cattle.

Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America were reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with osseous sequestration were compared with breed, age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the study period.

Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified. Most sequestra were associated with the bones of the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated medically, 3 were initially treated medically and were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated. Follow-up information was available for 65 animals treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically. Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals treated medically had a successful outcome. Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly increased risk of developing a sequestrum, compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2 or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that sequestrectomy will result in a successful outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for development of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—110 cattle.

Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America were reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with osseous sequestration were compared with breed, age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the study period.

Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified. Most sequestra were associated with the bones of the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated medically, 3 were initially treated medically and were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated. Follow-up information was available for 65 animals treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically. Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals treated medically had a successful outcome. Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly increased risk of developing a sequestrum, compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2 or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that sequestrectomy will result in a successful outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)