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Hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in goats

Margaret-Mary McEwen BVSc1, Robin D. Gleed BVSc, DACVA2, John W. Ludders DVM, DACVA3, Tracy Stokol BVSc, PhD, DACVP4, Fabio Del Piero DVM, DACVP5, and Hollis N. Erb DVM, PhD6
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 4 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 5 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, PA 19348.
  • | 6 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

Objective—To determine hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy goats.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.

Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12) while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9 and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations, respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme activities were within reference limits at all times in all except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been anesthetized with halothane and had the longest duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities were seen on histologic examination of liver specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)

Abstract

Objective—To determine hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy goats.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.

Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12) while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9 and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations, respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme activities were within reference limits at all times in all except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been anesthetized with halothane and had the longest duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities were seen on histologic examination of liver specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)