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Reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 53 cases (1995–1998)

Carolyn E. Briggs DVM1,2, Richard W. Nelson DVM, DACVIM3, Edward C. Feldman DVM, DACVIM4, Denise A. Elliott BVSc, DACVIM5, and Larry A. Neal BS6
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  • 1 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Present address is Pet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5232 Jackson Dr, Ste 105, La Mesa, CA 91941.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 insulin-treated dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Medical records of insulin-treated diabetic dogs from June 1995 to June 1998 were reviewed, and information on owner perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, body weight, insulin dosage, and concentrations of food-withheld (ie, fasting) blood glucose (FBG), mean blood glucose (MBG) during an 8-hour period, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), and serum fructosamine was obtained. Owner's perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight were used to classify control of glycemia as good or poor for each dog. The FBG, MBG/8 h, blood GHb, and serum fructosamine concentrations were compared between well-controlled and poorly controlled insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Results—Presence or absence of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy, and weakness were most helpful in classifying control of glycemia. Mean FBG and MBG/8 h concentrations, blood GHb concentrations, and serum fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in 25 well-controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 28 poorly controlled diabetic dogs. Most well-controlled diabetic dogs had concentrations of FBG between 100 and 300 mg/dl, MBG/8 h ≤ 250 mg/dl, blood GHb ≤ 7.5%, and serum fructosamine ≤ 525 µmol/L, whereas most poorly controlled diabetic dogs had results that were greater than these values.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Reliance on history, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight are effective for initially assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:48–53)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of history and physical examination findings for assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 insulin-treated dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Medical records of insulin-treated diabetic dogs from June 1995 to June 1998 were reviewed, and information on owner perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, body weight, insulin dosage, and concentrations of food-withheld (ie, fasting) blood glucose (FBG), mean blood glucose (MBG) during an 8-hour period, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), and serum fructosamine was obtained. Owner's perception of their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight were used to classify control of glycemia as good or poor for each dog. The FBG, MBG/8 h, blood GHb, and serum fructosamine concentrations were compared between well-controlled and poorly controlled insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

Results—Presence or absence of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy, and weakness were most helpful in classifying control of glycemia. Mean FBG and MBG/8 h concentrations, blood GHb concentrations, and serum fructosamine concentrations were significantly decreased in 25 well-controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 28 poorly controlled diabetic dogs. Most well-controlled diabetic dogs had concentrations of FBG between 100 and 300 mg/dl, MBG/8 h ≤ 250 mg/dl, blood GHb ≤ 7.5%, and serum fructosamine ≤ 525 µmol/L, whereas most poorly controlled diabetic dogs had results that were greater than these values.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Reliance on history, physical examination findings, and changes in body weight are effective for initially assessing control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:48–53)