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Utilizing smartphone-based electrocardiography and thoracic radiography to evaluate cardiac function and morphology in geriatric Sika deer (Cervus nippon)

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  • 1 Veterinary Services, Safari Game Search Foundation DBA Wildlife Safari, Winston, OR
  • | 2 Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe qualitative and quantitative cardiothoracic values in geriatric Sika deer (Cervus nippon) using digital radiography, 6-lead ECG (sECG), and smartphone-based ECG (aECG).

ANIMALS

10 healthy geriatric Sika deer (9 females and 1 male).

PROCEDURES

Deer were chemically immobilized, thoracic radiographs were obtained, and inhalant anesthesia was initiated. An sECG and aECG were simultaneously recorded for each animal using the same ECG specifications. Results were compared between devices.

RESULTS

Radiographically, no deer had any cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Median (range) values for the most important cardiac measurements were 170 (153–193) mm for cardiac height, 135 (122–146) mm for cardiac width, 9 (8–9) for vertebral heart score, and 99 (69–124) mm for cardiosternal contact. All deer had a normal sinus rhythm with no pathological arrhythmias noted. A significant difference between sECG and aECG was identified for minimum heart rate (49 vs 51 beats/min, respectively), P wave duration (0.05 vs 0.03 seconds), P wave amplitude (0.28 vs 0.10 mV), PR interval (0.15 vs 0.12 seconds), and QT interval (0.39 vs 0.30 seconds).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Thoracic radiographs were suitable to evaluate basic cardiothoracic morphology in Sika deer. The aECG was useful for assessing heart rate and rhythm but, compared with sECG, proved no substitute for evaluating duration and amplitude of ECG waveforms.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe qualitative and quantitative cardiothoracic values in geriatric Sika deer (Cervus nippon) using digital radiography, 6-lead ECG (sECG), and smartphone-based ECG (aECG).

ANIMALS

10 healthy geriatric Sika deer (9 females and 1 male).

PROCEDURES

Deer were chemically immobilized, thoracic radiographs were obtained, and inhalant anesthesia was initiated. An sECG and aECG were simultaneously recorded for each animal using the same ECG specifications. Results were compared between devices.

RESULTS

Radiographically, no deer had any cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Median (range) values for the most important cardiac measurements were 170 (153–193) mm for cardiac height, 135 (122–146) mm for cardiac width, 9 (8–9) for vertebral heart score, and 99 (69–124) mm for cardiosternal contact. All deer had a normal sinus rhythm with no pathological arrhythmias noted. A significant difference between sECG and aECG was identified for minimum heart rate (49 vs 51 beats/min, respectively), P wave duration (0.05 vs 0.03 seconds), P wave amplitude (0.28 vs 0.10 mV), PR interval (0.15 vs 0.12 seconds), and QT interval (0.39 vs 0.30 seconds).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Thoracic radiographs were suitable to evaluate basic cardiothoracic morphology in Sika deer. The aECG was useful for assessing heart rate and rhythm but, compared with sECG, proved no substitute for evaluating duration and amplitude of ECG waveforms.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 87 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Gonzalez-Jassi (hg7891@gmail.com)