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Neuraxial administration of morphine combined with lidocaine induces regional antinociception in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

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  • 1 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the antinociceptive efficacy and safety of neuraxial morphine in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

10 healthy adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

Animals were sedated with alfaxalone (15 mg/kg) SC prior to neuraxial injections. In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, animals received preservative-free morphine (0.5 mg/kg) combined with lidocaine (2 mg/kg) or lidocaine (2 mg/kg) only (control treatment). For both treatments, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used for dilution to a total volume of 0.3 mL/kg. If the initial injection did not result in motor block of the pelvic limbs or cloaca relaxation within 10 minutes, a second injection was performed. Measurements consisted of bilateral mechanical stimulation of the limbs and at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the trunk’s length as well as cloacal tone to assess spread and duration of motor block. Pelvic limb withdrawal latencies in response to a thermal noxious stimulus were measured over a 48-hour period to assess antinociception.

RESULTS

Success rate following the first injection was 90% (18/20 injections) and increased to 100% following a second injection. Motor block occurred within 5 minutes with both treatments. Pelvic limb withdrawal latencies were significantly prolonged following neuraxial morphine versus control treatment for at least 12 hours after injection. By 24 hours, no effect of morphine on pelvic limb latencies was detectable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results demonstrated that neuraxial administration of morphine results in regional antinociceptive effects for at least 12 hours and has no clinically relevant adverse effects in healthy bearded dragons. This technique has potential for providing regional analgesia in this species.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the antinociceptive efficacy and safety of neuraxial morphine in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

10 healthy adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

Animals were sedated with alfaxalone (15 mg/kg) SC prior to neuraxial injections. In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, animals received preservative-free morphine (0.5 mg/kg) combined with lidocaine (2 mg/kg) or lidocaine (2 mg/kg) only (control treatment). For both treatments, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used for dilution to a total volume of 0.3 mL/kg. If the initial injection did not result in motor block of the pelvic limbs or cloaca relaxation within 10 minutes, a second injection was performed. Measurements consisted of bilateral mechanical stimulation of the limbs and at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the trunk’s length as well as cloacal tone to assess spread and duration of motor block. Pelvic limb withdrawal latencies in response to a thermal noxious stimulus were measured over a 48-hour period to assess antinociception.

RESULTS

Success rate following the first injection was 90% (18/20 injections) and increased to 100% following a second injection. Motor block occurred within 5 minutes with both treatments. Pelvic limb withdrawal latencies were significantly prolonged following neuraxial morphine versus control treatment for at least 12 hours after injection. By 24 hours, no effect of morphine on pelvic limb latencies was detectable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results demonstrated that neuraxial administration of morphine results in regional antinociceptive effects for at least 12 hours and has no clinically relevant adverse effects in healthy bearded dragons. This technique has potential for providing regional analgesia in this species.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Ferreira (tatiana.ferreira@wisc.edu)