• 1.

    Motomura K. Sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer: past, present, and future. Breast Cancer. 2015;22(3):212220.

  • 2.

    Biller B, Berg J, Garrett L, et al. 2016 AAHA oncology guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2016;52(4):181204.

  • 3.

    Binder M, Kittler H, Steiner A, Dorffner R, Wolff K, Pehamberger H. Lymph node sonography versus palpation for detecting recurrent disease in patients with malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 1997;33(11):18051808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Rottey S, Petrovic M, Bauters W, et al. Evaluation of metastatic lymph nodes in head and neck cancer: a comparative study between palpation, ultrasonography, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and computed tomography. Acta Clin Belg. 2006;61(5):236241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Langenbach A, McManus PM, Hendrick MJ, Shofer FS, Sorenmo KU. Sensitivity and specificity of methods of assessing the regional lymph nodes for evidence of metastasis in dogs and cats with solid tumors. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218(9):14241428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    MacNeill AL. Cytology of canine and feline cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and lymph nodes. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26(2):6276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Seiler GS, Griffith E. Comparisons between elastographic stiffness scores for benign versus malignant lymph nodes in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018;59(1):7988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Amores-Fuster I, Cripps P, Graham P, Marrington AM, Blackwood L. The diagnostic utility of lymph node cytology samples in dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract. 2015;56(2):125129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kofler J, Schilcher F, Buchner A. Ultrasonographic appearance of normal superficial cervical and subiliac lymph nodes in cattle. Vet Rec. 1998;142(16):425428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Ruppel MJ, Pollard RE, Willcox JL. Ultrasonographic characterization of cervical lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60(5):560566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Silver TI, Lawson JA, Mayer MN. Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal main axillary and superficial cervical lymph nodes in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73(8):12001206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Adibelli ZH, Unal G, Gül E, Koçak U, Abali Y. Differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes: value of B-mode and color Doppler sonography. Eur J Radiol. 1998;28(3):230234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Nyman HT, Lee MH, McEvoy FJ, Nielsen OL, Martinussen T, Kristensen AT. Comparison of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic findings with histologic features of benign and malignant superficial lymph nodes in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67(6):978984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    De Swarte M, Alexander K, Rannou B, D'Anjou MA, Blond L, Beauchamp G. Comparison of sonographic features of benign and neoplastic deep lymph nodes in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;52(4):451456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sigrist RMS, Liau J, El Kaffas A, Chammas MC, Willmann JK. Ultrasound elastography: review of techniques and clinical applications. Theranostics. 2017;7(5):13031329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Cui XW, Jenssen C, Saftoiu A, Ignee A, Dietrich CF. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(30):48504860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Chang JM, Moon WK, Cho N, et al. Clinical application of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast diseases. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;129(1):8997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Sebag F, Vaillant-Lombard J, Berbis J, et al. Shear wave elastography: a new ultrasound imaging mode for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(12):52815288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Azizi G, Keller JM, Mayo ML, et al. Shear wave elastography and cervical lymph nodes: predicting malignancy. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016;42(6):12731281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Desmots F, Fakhry N, Mancini J, et al. Shear wave elastography in head and neck lymph node assessment: image quality and diagnostic impact compared with B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016;42(2):387398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Herman J, Sedlackova Z, Vachutka J, Furst T, Salzman R, Vomacka J. Shear wave elastography parameters of normal soft tissues of the neck. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017;161(3):320325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ben Z, Gao S, Wu W, et al. Clinical value of the VTIQ technology in the differential diagnosis of superficially enlarged lymph nodes. Acta Radiol. 2018;59(7):836844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Feng YH, Hu XD, Zhai L, et al. Shear wave elastography results correlate with liver fibrosis histology and liver function reserve. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(17):43384344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ferraioli G, Tinelli C, Dal Bello B, et al. Accuracy of real-time shear wave elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study. Hepatology. 2012;56(6):21252133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Glińska-Suchocka K, Jankowski M, Kubiak K, Spuzak J, Dzimira S, Nicpon J. Application of shear wave elastography in the diagnosis of mammary gland neoplasm in dogs. Pol J Vet Sci. 2013;16(3):477482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Jung JW, Je H, Lee SK, Jang Y, Choi J. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography of normal soft tissue organs in adult Beagle dogs: interobserver agreement and sources of variability. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020;8:979. doi:10.3389/fbioe.2020.00979

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Shimizu M, Ito Y. Change in shear elastic modulus of thigh muscle by changing muscle length using ultrasound shear wave elastography in Beagle dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2019;32(6):454459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Tamura M, Ohta H, Nisa K, et al. Evaluation of liver and spleen stiffness of healthy dogs by use of two-dimensional shear wave elastography. Am J Vet Res. 2019;80(4):378384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Tamura M, Ohta H, Shimbo G, et al. Usefulness of noninvasive shear wave elastography for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in dogs with hepatic disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(5):20672074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Gennisson JL, Grenier N, Combe C, Tanter M. Supersonic shear wave elastography of in vivo pig kidney: influence of blood pressure, urinary pressure and tissue anisotropy. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012;38(9):15591567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Yin L, Lu R, Cao W, et al. Three-dimensional shear wave elastography of skeletal muscle: preliminary study. J Ultrasound Med. 2018;37(8):20532062.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Holdsworth A, Bradley K, Birch S, Browne WJ, Barberet V. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2014;55(6):620627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Lee HY, Lee JH, Shin JH, et al. Shear wave elastography using ultrasound: effects of anisotropy and stretch stress on a tissue phantom and in vivo reactive lymph nodes in the neck. Ultrasonography. 2017;36(1):2532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Hudson JM, Milot L, Parry C, Williams R, Burns PN. Inter- and intra-operator reliability and repeatability of shear wave elastography in the liver: a study in healthy volunteers. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2013;39(6):950955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Kishimoto R, Kikuchi K, Koyama A, et al. Intra- and inter-operator reproducibility of US point shear-wave elastography in various organs: evaluation in phantoms and healthy volunteers. Eur Radiol. 2019;29(11):59996008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Varbobitis IC, Siakavellas SI, Koutsounas IS, et al. Reliability and applicability of two-dimensional shear-wave elastography for the evaluation of liver stiffness. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;28(10):12041209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Comparison of shear-wave velocities obtained with shear-wave elastography of various peripheral lymph nodes in healthy Beagles

Yu-rim Kang DVM, MS1, Su-hyeon Lee DVM, MS1, Im-mee Seo DVM, MS1, Jae-un Ko DVM, PhD1, Jae-hwan Kim DVM, PhD1, and Ki-dong Eom DVM, PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 From the Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare shear-wave velocities (SWVs) with shear-wave elastography of various peripheral lymph nodes (LNs).

ANIMALS

11 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

For each dog, bilateral mandibular, medial retropharyngeal, superficial cervical, axillary, superficial inguinal, and popliteal LNs were evaluated with shear-wave elastography in sagittal and transverse scanning planes. Depth of each lymph node was recorded, and intra- and interobserver reliability was determined.

RESULTS

SWVs for all LNs were significantly higher in the sagittal scanning plane, compared with those in the transverse scanning plane. The SWV of the most superficial LN, the mandibular LN, was significantly higher, compared with that for the other LNs, except for the medial retropharyngeal LN. The SWV of the deepest LN, the medial retropharyngeal LN, was as high as that for the mandibular LN. Intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SWVs for normal peripheral LNs of Beagles may serve as a reference to compare with those for other breeds and diseased LNs. Scanning plane, LN depth, and interfering tissues between the LN and the transducer may affect SWV. Shear-wave elastography may not be operator dependent.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare shear-wave velocities (SWVs) with shear-wave elastography of various peripheral lymph nodes (LNs).

ANIMALS

11 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

For each dog, bilateral mandibular, medial retropharyngeal, superficial cervical, axillary, superficial inguinal, and popliteal LNs were evaluated with shear-wave elastography in sagittal and transverse scanning planes. Depth of each lymph node was recorded, and intra- and interobserver reliability was determined.

RESULTS

SWVs for all LNs were significantly higher in the sagittal scanning plane, compared with those in the transverse scanning plane. The SWV of the most superficial LN, the mandibular LN, was significantly higher, compared with that for the other LNs, except for the medial retropharyngeal LN. The SWV of the deepest LN, the medial retropharyngeal LN, was as high as that for the mandibular LN. Intra- and interobserver reliability was excellent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SWVs for normal peripheral LNs of Beagles may serve as a reference to compare with those for other breeds and diseased LNs. Scanning plane, LN depth, and interfering tissues between the LN and the transducer may affect SWV. Shear-wave elastography may not be operator dependent.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Eom (eomkd@konkuk.ac.kr).