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Dexmedetomidine prolongs the duration of action of mepivacaine on anesthesia of the palmar digital nerves of horses

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  • 1 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
  • | 2 Office of Information Technology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether palmar digital nerve (PDN) blockade in horses with a combination of dexmedetomidine and mepivacaine would block the response to mechanical force applied to the digit longer than would anesthetizing these nerves with mepivacaine alone or dexmedetomidine alone.

ANIMALS

8 mares with no signs of lameness.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, crossover, blinded, experimental study, both PDNs of the same forelimb of each horse were anesthetized by perineural injection with either 30 mg mepivacaine alone, 250 µg of dexmedetomidine alone, or 30 mg mepivacaine combined with 250 µg of dexmedetomidine. Each horse received each treatment, and treatments were administered ≥ 2 weeks apart. The mechanical nociceptive threshold was measured at a region between the heel bulbs with the use of a digital force gauge before (baseline) and at 15-minute intervals after treatment.

RESULTS

The mean duration of sensory blockade of the digit was 2-fold longer when a combination of mepivacaine and dexmedetomidine was administered (371 minutes), compared with when mepivacaine alone was administered (186 minutes). Treatment with dexmedetomidine alone did not change the mechanical nociceptive threshold substantially from baseline and resulted in no clinical signs of sedation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relief from digital pain provided by perineural treatment with mepivacaine for PDN blockade can be extended by adding dexmedetomidine to the injectate.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether palmar digital nerve (PDN) blockade in horses with a combination of dexmedetomidine and mepivacaine would block the response to mechanical force applied to the digit longer than would anesthetizing these nerves with mepivacaine alone or dexmedetomidine alone.

ANIMALS

8 mares with no signs of lameness.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, crossover, blinded, experimental study, both PDNs of the same forelimb of each horse were anesthetized by perineural injection with either 30 mg mepivacaine alone, 250 µg of dexmedetomidine alone, or 30 mg mepivacaine combined with 250 µg of dexmedetomidine. Each horse received each treatment, and treatments were administered ≥ 2 weeks apart. The mechanical nociceptive threshold was measured at a region between the heel bulbs with the use of a digital force gauge before (baseline) and at 15-minute intervals after treatment.

RESULTS

The mean duration of sensory blockade of the digit was 2-fold longer when a combination of mepivacaine and dexmedetomidine was administered (371 minutes), compared with when mepivacaine alone was administered (186 minutes). Treatment with dexmedetomidine alone did not change the mechanical nociceptive threshold substantially from baseline and resulted in no clinical signs of sedation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relief from digital pain provided by perineural treatment with mepivacaine for PDN blockade can be extended by adding dexmedetomidine to the injectate.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Nichols (cnicho50@vols.utk.edu)