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Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography detects the elevation of cerebral blood flow during ictal-phase of pentetrazol-induced seizures in dogs

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  • 1 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan
  • | 2 Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the association between changes in cerebral blood flow and electrographic epileptic seizure in dogs using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).

ANIMALS

6 healthy Beagle dogs.

PROCEDURES

Each dog was administered pentetrazol (1.5 mg/kg/min) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution under general anesthesia with continuous infusion of propofol. Both pentetrazol and saline solution were administered to all 6 dogs, with at least 28 days interval between the experiments. Blood flow waveforms in the middle cerebral artery and the basilar artery were obtained using TCD at baseline, after pentetrazol administration, and after diazepam administration. TCD velocities, including peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and mean velocity and resistance variables, were determined from the Doppler waveforms.

RESULTS

During ictal-phase of pentetrazol-induced seizures, the TCD velocities significantly increased in the basilar and middle cerebral arteries while TCD vascular resistance variables did not change in either artery. The TCD velocities significantly decreased after diazepam administration. Systemic parameters, such as the heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, end-tidal carbon dioxide, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, did not change significantly during seizures.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study showed that cerebral blood flow, as obtained from TCD velocities, increased by 130% during ictal-phase of pentetrazol-induced seizures in dogs. The elevated velocities returned to baseline after seizure suppression. Thus, TCD may be used to detect electrographic seizures during the treatment of status epilepticus in dogs, and further clinical studies clarifying the association between changes in cerebral blood flow and non-convulsive seizure cases are needed.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 125 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Takiguchi (mtaki@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp)