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Effects of forages, dust exposure and proresolving lipids on airway inflammation in horses

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • | 2 Bindley Bioscience Center, West Lafayette, IN
  • | 3 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • | 4 Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • | 5 School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3)–derived proresolving lipid mediators (PRLM) in the resolution of mild airway inflammation in horses.

ANIMALS

20 horses with mild airway inflammation.

PROCEDURES

Horses previously eating hay were fed hay pellets (low Ω-3 content; n = 10) or haylage (high Ω-3 content; 9) for 6 weeks. Dust exposure was measured in the breathing zone with a real-time particulate monitor. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline, week 3, and week 6. The effect of PRLM on neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis was examined in vitro. BAL fluid inflammatory cell proportions, apoptosis of circulating neutrophils, efferocytosis displayed by alveolar macrophages, and plasma lipid concentrations were compared between groups fed low and high amounts of Ω-3 by use of repeated measures of generalized linear models.

RESULTS

Dust exposure was significantly higher with hay feeding, compared to haylage and pellets, and equivalent between haylage and pellets. BAL fluid neutrophil proportions decreased significantly in horses fed haylage (baseline, 11.8 ± 2.4%; week 6, 2.5 ± 1.1%) but not pellets (baseline, 12.1 ± 2.3%; week 6, 8.5% ± 1.7%). At week 6, horses eating haylage had significantly lower BAL neutrophil proportions than those eating pellets, and a significantly lower concentration of stearic acid than at baseline. PRLM treatments did not affect neutrophil apoptosis or efferocytosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite similar reduction in dust exposure, horses fed haylage displayed greater resolution of airway inflammation than those fed pellets. This improvement was not associated with increased plasma Ω-3 concentrations. Feeding haylage improves airway inflammation beyond that due to reduced dust exposure, though the mechanism remains unclear.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3)–derived proresolving lipid mediators (PRLM) in the resolution of mild airway inflammation in horses.

ANIMALS

20 horses with mild airway inflammation.

PROCEDURES

Horses previously eating hay were fed hay pellets (low Ω-3 content; n = 10) or haylage (high Ω-3 content; 9) for 6 weeks. Dust exposure was measured in the breathing zone with a real-time particulate monitor. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline, week 3, and week 6. The effect of PRLM on neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis was examined in vitro. BAL fluid inflammatory cell proportions, apoptosis of circulating neutrophils, efferocytosis displayed by alveolar macrophages, and plasma lipid concentrations were compared between groups fed low and high amounts of Ω-3 by use of repeated measures of generalized linear models.

RESULTS

Dust exposure was significantly higher with hay feeding, compared to haylage and pellets, and equivalent between haylage and pellets. BAL fluid neutrophil proportions decreased significantly in horses fed haylage (baseline, 11.8 ± 2.4%; week 6, 2.5 ± 1.1%) but not pellets (baseline, 12.1 ± 2.3%; week 6, 8.5% ± 1.7%). At week 6, horses eating haylage had significantly lower BAL neutrophil proportions than those eating pellets, and a significantly lower concentration of stearic acid than at baseline. PRLM treatments did not affect neutrophil apoptosis or efferocytosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite similar reduction in dust exposure, horses fed haylage displayed greater resolution of airway inflammation than those fed pellets. This improvement was not associated with increased plasma Ω-3 concentrations. Feeding haylage improves airway inflammation beyond that due to reduced dust exposure, though the mechanism remains unclear.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Appendix S1 (PDF 103 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S2 (PDF 91 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S3 (PDF 83 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S4 (PDF 136 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S5 (PDF 746 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S6 (PDF 110 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S7 (PDF 88 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S8 (PDF 412 KB)
    • Supplementary Appendix S9 (PDF 553 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Couëtil (couetill@purdue.edu)