• 1. Nicoll C, Singh A, Weese JS. Economic impact of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy surgical site infection in dogs. Vet Surg 2014;43:899902.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Ahern BJ, Richardson DW. Surgical site infection and the use of antimicrobials. In: Auer JA, Stick JA, eds. Equine surgery. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2014;6884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Burgess BA. Prevention and surveillance of surgical infections: a review. Vet Surg 2019;48:284290.

  • 4. Weber DJ, Rutala WA, Anderson DJ, et al. Effectiveness of ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems for terminal room decontamination: focus on clinical trials. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:e77e84.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Pavia M, Simpser E, Becker M, et al. The effect of ultraviolet-C technology on viral infection incidence in a pediatric long-term care facility. Am J Infect Control 2018;46:720722.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Anderson DJ, Chen LF, Weber DJ, et al. Enhanced terminal room disinfection and acquisition and infection caused by multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile (the benefits of enhanced terminal room disinfection study): a cluster-randomised, multicentre, crossover study. Lancet 2017;389:805814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection. Bull Am Coll Surg 2000;85:2329.

  • 8. Eugster S, Schawalder P, Gaschen F, et al. A prospective study of postoperative surgical site infections in dogs and cats. Vet Surg 2004;33:542550.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Whittem TL, Johnson AL, Smith CW, et al. Effect of peri-operative prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:212216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Nelson LL. Surgical site infections in small animal surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2011;41:10411056.

  • 11. Curtiss AL, Stefanovski D, Richardson DW. Surgical site infection associated with equine orthopedic internal fixation: 155 cases (2008–2016). Vet Surg 2019;48:685693.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Dancer SJ. How do we assess hospital cleaning: a proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect 2004;56:1015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Hayden MK, Bonten MJM, Blom DW, et al. Reduction in acquisition of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus after enforcement of routine environmental cleaning measures. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:15521560.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Dancer SJ. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 2009;73:378385.

  • 15. Traverse M, Aceto H. Environmental cleaning and disinfection. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45:299330.

  • 16. Spencer M, Vignari M, Bryce E, et al. A model for choosing an automated ultraviolet-C disinfection system and building a case for the c-suite: two case reports. Am J Infect Control 2017;45:288292.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Murrell LJ, Hamilton EK, Johnson HB, et al. Influence of a visible-light continuous environmental disinfection system on microbial contamination and surgical site infections in an orthopedic operating room. Am J Infect Control 2019;47:804810.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Kovach CR, Taneli Y, Neiman T, et al. Evaluation of an ultra-violet room disinfection protocol to decrease nursing home microbial burden, infection and hospitalization rates. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17:186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Kujundzic E, Hernandez M, Miller SL. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation inactivation of airborne fungal spores and bacteria in upper-room air and HVAC in-duct configurations. J Environ Eng Sci 2007;6:19.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Jaynes RA, Thompson MC, Kennedy MA. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation of the air on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in kittens in a nursery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020;257:929932.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Pearce-Walker JI, Troup DJ, Ives R, et al. Investigation of the effects of an ultraviolet germicidal irradiation system on concentrations of aerosolized surrogates for common veterinary pathogens. Am J Vet Res 2020;81:506513.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Nerandzic MM, Thota P, Sankar CT, et al. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system for reduction of healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:192197.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Finsen NR. About use in medicine of concentrated chemical light beams [Danish]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1896;164.

  • 24. Møller KI, Kongshoj B, Philipsen PA, et al. How Finsen's light cured lupus vulgaris. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2005;21:118124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Chatterley C, Linden K. Demonstration and evaluation of germicidal UV-LEDs for point-of-use water disinfection. J Water Health 2010;8:479486.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Browne KL, Wood D, Clezy K, et al. Comparison of routine environmental cleaning and ultraviolet-C disinfection in the hyperbaric unit: a pilot study. Diving Hyperb Med 2020;50:318324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Siragusa GR, Cutter CN. Microbial ATP bioluminescence as a means to detect contamination on artificially contaminated beef carcass tissue. J Food Prot 1995;58:764769.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Otter JA, Yezli S, French GL. The role of contaminated surfaces in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. In: Borkow G, ed. Use of biocidal surfaces for reduction of healthcare acquired infections. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG, 2014;2758.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. KuKanich KS, Ghosh A, Skarbek JV, et al. Surveillance of bacterial contamination in small animal veterinary hospitals with special focus on antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits of enterococci. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:437445.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Chemaly RF, Ghantoji SS, Simmons S, et al. The role of the healthcare environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms: update on current best practices for containment. Ther Adv Infect Dis 2014;2:7990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Sexton T, Clarke P, O'Neill E, et al. Environmental reservoirs of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in isolation rooms: correlation with patient isolates and implications for hospital hygiene. J Hosp Infect 2006;62:187194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:130.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Nazarali A, Singh A, Kim S. Association between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage and surgical site infections following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs Laparoscopic treatment of ovarian remnant syndrome in dogs and cats: 7 cases (2010–2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:909916.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Steneroden KK, Van Metre DC, Jackson C, et al. Detection and control of a nosocomial outbreak caused by Salmonella newport at a large animal hospital. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:606616.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Weese JS, DaCosta T, Button L, et al. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the environment in a veterinary teaching hospital. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:468470.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Infection control: the role of dis-infection and sterilization. J Hosp Infect 1999;(suppl) 43:S43S55.

  • 37. Carling PC, Bartley JM. Evaluating hygienic cleaning in health care settings: what you do not know can harm your patients. Am J Infect Control 2010;38:S41S50.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Dharan S, Mourouga P, Copin P, et al. Routine disinfection of patients' environmental surfaces: myth or reality? J Hosp Infect 1999;42:113117.

  • 39. Leas BF, Sullivan N, Han JH, et al. Environmental cleaning for the prevention of infections. Report No. 15–EHC020-EF. Rockville, Md: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Nerandzic MM, Fisher CW, Donskey CJ. Sorting through the wealth of options: comparative evaluation of two ultraviolet disinfection systems. PLoS One 2014;9:e107444.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Dallap Schaer BL, Aceto H, Rankin SC. Outbreak of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport MDRAmpC in a large animal veterinary teaching hospital. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:11381146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs. Vet Surg 2015;44:28.

  • 43. Heller J, Armstrong SK, Girvan EK, et al. Prevalence and distribution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within the environment and staff of a university veterinary clinic. J Small Anim Pract 2009;50:168173.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Tomlin J, Pead MJ, Lloyd DH, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in 11 dogs. Vet Rec 1999;144:6064.

  • 45. Weese JS, Rousseau J, Willey BM, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:182186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Burgess BA, Morley PS. Risk factors for veterinary hospital environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica. Epidemiol Infect 2018;146:12821292.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Kowalski W. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation handbook: UVGI for air and surface disinfection. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2009.

  • 48. Ahern BJ, Richardson DW, Boston RC, et al. Orthopedic infections in equine long bone fractures and arthrodeses treated by internal fixation: 192 cases (1990–2006). Vet Surg 2010;39:588593.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Dunlop PSM, Ciavola M, Rizzo L, et al. Effect of photocatalysis on the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in urban wastewater. Catal Today 2015;240:5560.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Bak J, Ladefoged SD, Tvede M, et al. Dose requirements for UVC disinfection of catheter biofilms. Biofouling 2009;25:289296.

  • 51. Henry-Stanley MJ, Hess DJ, Barnes AMT, et al. Bacterial contamination of surgical suture resembles a biofilm. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2010;11:433439.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. Thompson AM, Bergh MS, Wang C, et al. Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy implant removal: a retrospective analysis of 129 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2011;24:450456.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Weese JS. A review of multidrug resistant surgical site infections. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008;21:17.

  • 54. Gallagher AD, Mertens WD. Implant removal rate from infection after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Vet Surg 2012;41:705711.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Davidson CA, Griffith CJ, Peters AC, et al. Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness—ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing. Luminescence 1999;14:3338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of ultraviolet-C light on the environmental bacterial bioburden in various veterinary facilities

View More View Less
  • 1 From the Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, Prince of Wales Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
  • | 2 From the School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
  • | 3 Sydney Veterinary Emergency and Specialists, Rosebery, NSW 2018, Australia
  • | 4 From the Randwick Equine Centre, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of a mobile UV-C disinfection device on the environmental bacterial bioburden in veterinary facilities.

SAMPLES

40 swab samples of surfaces from the operating theaters of 3 veterinary hospitals and 1 necropsy laboratory.

PROCEDURES

Various surfaces were swabbed, and collected material was eluted from the swabs in PBSS. Then, an aliquot of the sample fluid was processed with a bacteria-specific rapid metabolic assay to quantify bacterial bioburden. Each site was then treated with UV-C light with an automated disinfection device for approximately 45 minutes. The same surfaces were swabbed following UV-C treatment, and bioburden was quantified. The bioburden at additional time points, including after a second UV-C treatment, was determined for the small animal operating theater.

RESULTS

All surfaces at all sites had a persistent viable bacterial population following manual cleaning. Disinfection with UV-C achieved a mean bioburden reduction of 94% (SD, 5.2%; range, 91% to 95%) for all surfaces, compared with manual disinfection alone. Repeated UV-C treatment of the small animal operating theater reduced mean bioburden by 99% (SD, 0.8%), including no detectable bacteria on 4 of 10 surfaces.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Disinfection with UV-C light may be a beneficial adjunct method for terminal disinfection of veterinary operating theaters to reduce environmental bioburden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of a mobile UV-C disinfection device on the environmental bacterial bioburden in veterinary facilities.

SAMPLES

40 swab samples of surfaces from the operating theaters of 3 veterinary hospitals and 1 necropsy laboratory.

PROCEDURES

Various surfaces were swabbed, and collected material was eluted from the swabs in PBSS. Then, an aliquot of the sample fluid was processed with a bacteria-specific rapid metabolic assay to quantify bacterial bioburden. Each site was then treated with UV-C light with an automated disinfection device for approximately 45 minutes. The same surfaces were swabbed following UV-C treatment, and bioburden was quantified. The bioburden at additional time points, including after a second UV-C treatment, was determined for the small animal operating theater.

RESULTS

All surfaces at all sites had a persistent viable bacterial population following manual cleaning. Disinfection with UV-C achieved a mean bioburden reduction of 94% (SD, 5.2%; range, 91% to 95%) for all surfaces, compared with manual disinfection alone. Repeated UV-C treatment of the small animal operating theater reduced mean bioburden by 99% (SD, 0.8%), including no detectable bacteria on 4 of 10 surfaces.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Disinfection with UV-C light may be a beneficial adjunct method for terminal disinfection of veterinary operating theaters to reduce environmental bioburden.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Crowley (james.crowley@unsw.edu.au).