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Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) at two different doses and administration routes

Shawna J. Hawkins MS, DVM1, Sherry K. Cox PhD2, and Kurt K. Sladky MS, DVM1
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  • 1 From the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706
  • | 2 From the Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine an optimal ceftazidime dosing strategy in Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) by evaluation of 2 different doses administered SC and 1 dose administered transcutaneously.

ANIMALS

44 Northern leopard frogs (including 10 that were replaced).

PROCEDURES

Ceftazidime was administered to frogs SC in a forelimb at 20 mg/kg (n = 10; SC20 group) and 40 mg/kg (10; SC40 group) or transcutaneously on the cranial dorsum at 20 mg/kg (10; TC20 group). Two frogs in each ceftazidime group were euthanized 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma, renal, and skin concentrations of ceftazidime were measured by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Four control frogs were used for assay validation.

RESULTS

Mean plasma half-life of ceftazidime in the SC20, SC40, and TC20 groups was 9.01 hours, 14.49 hours, and too low to determine, respectively. Mean maximum plasma ceftazidime concentration was 92.9, 96.0, and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. For 24 hours after drug administration in the SC20 and SC40 groups, plasma ceftazidime concentration exceeded 8 μg/mL. Renal and skin concentrations were detectable at both doses and routes of administration; however, skin concentrations were significantly lower than renal and plasma concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that ceftazidime administration to Northern leopard frogs at 20 mg/kg, SC, every 24 hours would achieve a plasma concentration exceeding the value considered effective against common amphibian pathogens. Transcutaneous administration of the injectable ceftazidime formulation at 20 mg/kg warrants further investigation but is not currently recommended because of a potential lack of efficacy.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Hawkins (shawkins0902@gmail.com).