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Evaluation of the in vitro effects of local anesthetics on equine chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes

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  • 1 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the in vitro effects of clinically relevant concentrations of the local anesthetics (LAs) bupivacaine, lidocaine, lidocaine with preservative (LP), mepivacaine, and ropivacaine on equine chondrocyte and fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) viability.

SAMPLE

Chondrocytes and FLSs of the metacarpophalangeal joints of 4 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Viability of chondrocytes and FLSs was determined with 3 assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and trypan blue (TB) exclusion (only FLS). Viability was assessed after 30- and 60-minute exposures to 0.0625%, 0.125%, and 0.25% bupivacaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% lidocaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% LP; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% mepivacaine; and 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

RESULTS

Viability of chondrocytes was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% lidocaine, 1% LP, 1% mepivacaine, and 0.25% ropivacaine. Viability of FLSs was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% mepivacaine, 1% LP, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinically relevant concentrations of LAs had in vitro time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity for chondrocytes and FLSs isolated from the metacarpophalangeal joints of healthy horses. Bupivacaine was more toxic to chondrocytes than lidocaine, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine, whereas bupivacaine, LP, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine were more toxic to FLSs than preservative-free lidocaine. Several LAs may negatively affect chondrocyte and FLS viability.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the in vitro effects of clinically relevant concentrations of the local anesthetics (LAs) bupivacaine, lidocaine, lidocaine with preservative (LP), mepivacaine, and ropivacaine on equine chondrocyte and fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) viability.

SAMPLE

Chondrocytes and FLSs of the metacarpophalangeal joints of 4 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Viability of chondrocytes and FLSs was determined with 3 assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and trypan blue (TB) exclusion (only FLS). Viability was assessed after 30- and 60-minute exposures to 0.0625%, 0.125%, and 0.25% bupivacaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% lidocaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% LP; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% mepivacaine; and 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

RESULTS

Viability of chondrocytes was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% lidocaine, 1% LP, 1% mepivacaine, and 0.25% ropivacaine. Viability of FLSs was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% mepivacaine, 1% LP, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinically relevant concentrations of LAs had in vitro time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity for chondrocytes and FLSs isolated from the metacarpophalangeal joints of healthy horses. Bupivacaine was more toxic to chondrocytes than lidocaine, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine, whereas bupivacaine, LP, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine were more toxic to FLSs than preservative-free lidocaine. Several LAs may negatively affect chondrocyte and FLS viability.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Adler (dima@sund.ku.dk).