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Investigation of the effects of excessive tibial plateau angle and changes in load on ligament tensile forces in the stifle joints of dogs

Tom Ichinohe BVSC, PhD1, Satoshi Yamakawa PhD1, Masakazu Shimada BVSC1, Nobuo Kanno BVSC, PhD1, Yukihiro Fujita BVSC, PhD1, Yasuji Harada BVSC, PhD1, Hiromichi Fujie PhD1, and Yasushi Hara BVSC, PhD1
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  • 1 From the Department of Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery, Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Laboratory of Small Animal Surgery, Azabu University, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan (Ichinohe, Fujita); Biomechanics Laboratory, Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 191-0065, Japan (Yamakawa, Fujie); and Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan (Shimada, Kanno, Harada, Hara).

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.

SAMPLE

16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Stifle joints were categorized into unchanged (mean TPA, 30.4°) and excessive (mean TPA before and after modification, 31.2° and 41.1°, respectively) TPA groups. The excessive TPA group underwent a TPA-increasing procedure (curvilinear osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the tibia) to achieve the desired TPA. A robotic system was used to apply a 30- and 60-N compressive load to specimens. The craniomedial band of the CCL, caudolateral band of the CCL, MCL, and LCL were sequentially transected; load application was repeated after each transection. Orthogonal force components were measured in situ. Forces on ligaments were calculated after repeated output force measurements as the contribution of each component was eliminated.

RESULTS

Increasing the compressive load increased tensile forces on the craniomedial and caudolateral bands of the CCL, but not on the MCL or LCL, in specimens of both groups. At the 60-N load, tensile force on the craniomedial band, but not other ligaments, was greater for the excessive TPA group than for the unchanged TPA group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that stress on the CCL may increase when the compressive load increases. The TPA-increasing procedure resulted in increased tensile force on the CCL at a 60-N compressive load without affecting forces on the MCL or LCL.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.

SAMPLE

16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Stifle joints were categorized into unchanged (mean TPA, 30.4°) and excessive (mean TPA before and after modification, 31.2° and 41.1°, respectively) TPA groups. The excessive TPA group underwent a TPA-increasing procedure (curvilinear osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the tibia) to achieve the desired TPA. A robotic system was used to apply a 30- and 60-N compressive load to specimens. The craniomedial band of the CCL, caudolateral band of the CCL, MCL, and LCL were sequentially transected; load application was repeated after each transection. Orthogonal force components were measured in situ. Forces on ligaments were calculated after repeated output force measurements as the contribution of each component was eliminated.

RESULTS

Increasing the compressive load increased tensile forces on the craniomedial and caudolateral bands of the CCL, but not on the MCL or LCL, in specimens of both groups. At the 60-N load, tensile force on the craniomedial band, but not other ligaments, was greater for the excessive TPA group than for the unchanged TPA group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that stress on the CCL may increase when the compressive load increases. The TPA-increasing procedure resulted in increased tensile force on the CCL at a 60-N compressive load without affecting forces on the MCL or LCL.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Ichinohe (ichinohe@azabu-u.ac.jp).