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Effects of perineural administration of ropivacaine combined with perineural or intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine for sciatic and saphenous nerve blocks in dogs

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  • 1 From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium (Marolf, Ida, Sandersen); and Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Siluk, Struck-Lewica, Markuszewski). Dr. Marolf's present address is Centre vétérinaire Medi-Vet SA, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland. Dr. Ida's present address is the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of using ropivacaine combined with dexmedetomidine for sciatic and saphenous nerve blocks in dogs.

ANIMALS

7 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In phase 1, dogs received each of the following 3 treatments in random order: perineural sciatic and saphenous nerve injections of 0.5% ropivacaine (0.4 mL/kg) mixed with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.04 mL/kg; DEX0PN), 0.5% ropivacaine mixed with dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; DEX1PN), and 0.5% ropivacaine mixed with dexmedetomidine (2 µg/kg; DEX2PN). In phase 2, dogs received perineural sciatic and saphenous nerve injections of 0.5% ropivacaine and an IV injection of diluted dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; DEX1IV). For perineural injections, the dose was divided equally between the 2 sites. Duration of sensory blockade was evaluated, and plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were measured.

RESULTS

Duration of sensory blockade was significantly longer with DEX1PN and DEX2PN, compared with DEX0PN; DEX1IV did not prolong duration of sensory blockade, compared with DEX0PN. Peak plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were reached after 15 minutes with DEX1PN (mean ± SD, 348 ± 200 pg/mL) and after 30 minutes DEX2PN (816 ± 607 pg/mL), and bioavailability was 54 ± 40% and 73 ± 43%, respectively. The highest plasma dexmedetomidine concentration was measured with DEX1IV (1,032 ± 415 pg/mL) 5 minutes after injection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that perineural injection of 0.5% ropivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) for locoregional anesthesia in dogs seemed to balance the benefit of prolonging sensory nerve blockade while minimizing adverse effects.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Marolf (vmarolf@medivetsa.ch).