• 1.

    Lewis DD, Radasch RM, Beale BS, et al. Initial clinical experience with the IMEX circular external skeletal fixation system. Part II. Use in bone lengthening and correction of angular and rotational deformities. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1999;12:118127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Balfour RJ, Boudrieau RJ, Gores BR. T-plate fixation of distal radial closing wedge osteotomies for treatment of angular limb deformities in 18 dogs. Vet Surg 2000;29:207217.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Fox DB, Tomlinson JL, Cook JL, et al. Principles of uniapical and biapical radial deformity correction using dome osteotomies and the center of rotation of angulation methodology in dogs. Vet Surg 2006;35:6777.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Dismukes DI, Fox DB, Tomlinson JL, et al. Determination of pelvic limb alignment in the large-breed dog: a cadaveric radiographic study in the frontal plane. Vet Surg 2008;37:674682.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Breiteneicher AH, Norby B, Schulz KS, et al. The effect of sliding humeral osteotomy (SHO) on frontal plane thoracic limb alignment: an ex vivo canine cadaveric study. Vet Surg 2016;45:10951107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Piras LA, Peirone B, Fox D. Effects of antebrachial torsion on the measurement of angulation in the frontal plane: a cadaveric radiographic analysis. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2012;25:8994.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Stevens PM. Radiographic distortion of bones: a marker study. Orthopedics 1989;12:14571463.

  • 8.

    Husmann O, Rubin PJ, Leyvraz PF, et al. Three-dimensional morphology of the proximal femur. J Arthroplasty 1997;12:444450.

  • 9.

    Ravaud P, Giraudeau B, Auleley GR, et al. Variability in knee radiographing: implication for definition of radiological progression in medial knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:624629.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Walch G, Mesiha M, Boileau P, et al. Three-dimensional assessment of the dimensions of the osteoarthritic glenoid. Bone Joint J 2013; 95-B:13771382.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Eckhoff DG, Bach JM, Spitzer VM, et al. Three-dimensional mechanics, kinematics, and morphology of the knee viewed in virtual reality. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87(suppl 2):7180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Smith EJ, Marcellin-Little DJ, Harrysson OLA, et al. Three-dimensional assessment of curvature, torsion, and canal flare index of the humerus of skeletally mature nonchondrodystrophic dogs. Am J Vet Res 2017;78:11401149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Dunlap AE, Mathews KG, Walters BL, et al. Three-dimensional assessment of the influence of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis on the pelvic geometry of dogs. Am J Vet Res 2018;79:12171225.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Agarwal M, Puri A, Gulia A, et al. Joint-sparing or physeal-sparing diaphyseal resections: the challenge of holding small fragments. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010;468:29242932.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sporer SM, Della Valle C. Porous metal augments: big hopes for big holes. Orthopedics 2010;33:651.

  • 16.

    Worth AJ, Crosse KR, Kersley A. Computer-assisted surgery using 3D printed saw guides for acute correction of antebrachial angular limb deformities in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019;32:241249.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hall EL, Baines S, Bilmont A, et al. Accuracy of patient-specific three-dimensional-printed osteotomy and reduction guides for distal femoral osteotomy in dogs with medial patella luxation. Vet Surg 2019;48:584591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Dobbe JG, du Pré KJ, Kloen P, et al. Computer-assisted and patient-specific 3-D planning and evaluation of a single-cut rotational osteotomy for complex long-bone deformities. Med Biol Eng Comput 2011;49:13631370.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Zheng GS, Su YX, Liao GQ, et al. Mandible reconstruction assisted by preoperative simulation and transferring templates: cadaveric study of accuracy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;70:14801485.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Domenech L, Munoz-Almaraz FJ, Serra CI, et al. A 3D mathematical model for planning ostectomy on long-bone angular deformities. J Comput Appl Math 2016;291:5865.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Wu G, Siegler S, Allard P, et al. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion—part I: ankle, hip, and spine International Society of Biomechanics. J Biomech 2002;35:543548.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wu G, van der Helm FC, Veeger HE, et al. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion—part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. J Biomech 2005;38:981992.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Nysjö J, Christersson A, Sintorn I-M, et al. Precise 3D angle measurements in CT wrist images, in Proceedings. Int Conf Image Anal Process 2013;479–488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Miranda DL, Rainbow MJ, Leventhal EL, et al. Automatic determination of anatomical coordinate systems for three-dimensional bone models of the isolated human knee. J Biomech 2010;43:16231626.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Bartlett JW, Frost C. Reliability, repeatability and reproducibility: analysis of measurement errors in continuous variables. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:466475.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    McAlinden C, Khadka J, Pesudovs K. Precision (repeatability and reproducibility) studies and sample-size calculation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2015;41:25982604.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Barnhart HX, Barboriak DP. Applications of the repeatability of quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical analysis of repeat data sets. Transl Oncol 2009;2:231235.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Portney LG. Foundations of clinical research: applications to evidence-based practice. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2020;486491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Assam PN, Mintiens K, Knapen K, et al. Estimating precision, repeatability, and reproducibility from Gaussian and non-Gaussian data: a mixed models approach. J Appl Stat 2010;37:17291747.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Agreement between methods of measurement with multiple observations per individual. J Biopharm Stat 2007;17:571582.

  • 31.

    Lawrence RL, Wright A. Rule-based classification systems using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing 2001;67:11371142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Knapp JL, Tomlinson JL, Fox DB. Classification of angular limb deformities affecting the canine radius and ulna using the center of rotation of angulation method. Vet Surg 2016;45:295302.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Kwan TW, Marcellin-Little DJ, Harrysson OL. Correction of biapical radial deformities by use of bi-level hinged circular external fixation and distraction osteogenesis in 13 dogs. Vet Surg 2014;43:316329.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Webster CE, Marcellin-Little DJ, Koballa EM, et al. Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of computed tomography and microcomputed tomography of the articular surface of the distal portion of the radius of cats. Am J Vet Res 2019;80:976984.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Fitzpatrick C, FitzPatrick D, Auger D, et al. A tibial-based coordinate system for three-dimensional data. Knee 2007;14:133137.

  • 36.

    Gulledge BM, Marcellin-Little DJ, Levine D, et al. Comparison of two stretching methods and optimization of stretching protocol for the piriformis muscle. Med Eng Phys 2014;36:212218.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Su XY, Zhao JX, Zhao Z, et al. Three-dimensional analysis of the characteristics of the femoral canal isthmus: an anatomical study. BioMed Res Int 2015;2015:459612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Su XY, Zhao Z, Zhao JX, et al. Three-dimensional analysis of the curvature of the femoral canal in 426 Chinese femurs. BioMed Res Int 2015;2015:318391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Burdin V, Roux C, Lefevre C, et al. Modeling and analysis of 3-D elongated shapes with applications to long bone morphometry. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1996;15:7991.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Yang X, Lim Z, Jung H, et al. Estimation of instantaneous hand joint centers of rotation using 3D reconstructed hand skeleton motion from CT scans, in Proceedings, Hum Factor Ergon Soc Annu Meet 2018;681685.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Kwon OY, Tuttle LJ, Commean PK, et al. Reliability and validity of measures of hammer toe deformity angle and tibial torsion. Foot (Edinb) 2009;19:149155.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Carson MC, Harrington ME, Thompson N, et al. Kinematic analysis of a multi-segment foot model for research and clinical applications: a repeatability analysis. J Biomech 2001;34:12991307.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Clementz BG, Magnusson A. Assessment of tibial torsion employing fluoroscopy, computed tomography and the cryosectioning technique. Acta Radiol 1989;30:7580.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Unis MD, Johnson AL, Griffon DJ, et al. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability and repeatability of tibial plateau angle measurements with digital radiography using a novel digital radiographic program. Vet Surg 2010;39:187194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Aghapour M, Bockstahler B, Kneissl S, et al. Femoral and tibial alignments in Chihuahuas with patellar luxation by radiograph: angular values and intra- and inter-observer agreement of measurements. PLoS One 2019;14:e0214579.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Homer LM, Gomes BAJ, Murphy MC, et al. Effect of osteoarthritis on the repeatability of patella tendon angle measurement in dogs. Vet Surg 2019;48:180185.

  • 47.

    Huang J, Tian F, Zhang Z, et al. Reliability and concurrent validity of angle measurements in lower limb: EOS 3D goniometer versus 2D manual goniometer. J Orthop Translat 2020;24:96102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Owen JL, Stephens D, Wright JG. Reliability of radiographic measurement of fracture angulation in children with femoral shaft fractures. Can J Surg 2007;50:115118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Barnes DM, Anderson AA, Frost C, et al. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of femoral and tibial alignment using computed tomography multiplanar reconstructions. Vet Surg 2015;44:8593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Meola SD, Wheeler JL, Rist CL. Validation of a technique to assess radial torsion in the presence of procurvatum and valgus deformity using computed tomography: a cadaveric study. Vet Surg 2008;37:525529.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Miyake J, Murase T, Oka K, et al. Computer-assisted corrective osteotomy for malunited diaphyseal forearm fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012;94:e150.

  • 52.

    Kai S, Sato T, Koga Y, et al. Automatic construction of an anatomical coordinate system for three-dimensional bone models of the lower extremities—pelvis, femur, and tibia. J Biomech 2014;47:12291233.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of computer-aided design software methods for assessment of the three-dimensional geometry of the canine radius

View More View Less
  • 1 From the Veterinary Orthopedic Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.

SAMPLE

31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.

PROCEDURES

Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.

SAMPLE

31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.

PROCEDURES

Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Marcellin-Little (djmarcel@ucdavis.edu).