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Evaluation of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture pattern with and without a core locking-loop suture on the biomechanical properties of tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model of canine superficial digital flexor tendon laceration

Daniel J. Duffy BVM&S, MS1, Yi-Jen Chang BVetMED, MS1, Lewis Gaffney BS2, Matthew B. Fisher PhD2, and George E. Moore DVM, PhD3
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 2 Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Raleigh, NC 27695.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Administration, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.

SAMPLE

54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, peak, and failure loads; gap formation incidence; and mode of failure were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

Mean yield, peak, and failure loads differed significantly among the 3 groups and were greatest for group 3 and lowest for group 1. Mean yield, peak, and failure loads for group 3 constructs were greater than those for group 1 constructs by 50%, 47%, and 44%, respectively. None of the group 3 constructs developed 3-mm gaps. The most common mode of failure was suture pulling through the tendon for groups 1 (12/18) and 2 (12/18) and suture breakage for group 3 (13/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested augmentation of a core LL suture with an nES pattern significantly increased the strength of and prevented 3-mm gap formation at the tenorrhaphy site in ex vivo canine SDFTs. In vivo studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness and practicality of the nES pattern for SDFT repair in dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.

SAMPLE

54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, peak, and failure loads; gap formation incidence; and mode of failure were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

Mean yield, peak, and failure loads differed significantly among the 3 groups and were greatest for group 3 and lowest for group 1. Mean yield, peak, and failure loads for group 3 constructs were greater than those for group 1 constructs by 50%, 47%, and 44%, respectively. None of the group 3 constructs developed 3-mm gaps. The most common mode of failure was suture pulling through the tendon for groups 1 (12/18) and 2 (12/18) and suture breakage for group 3 (13/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested augmentation of a core LL suture with an nES pattern significantly increased the strength of and prevented 3-mm gap formation at the tenorrhaphy site in ex vivo canine SDFTs. In vivo studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness and practicality of the nES pattern for SDFT repair in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Duffy (djduffy@ncsu.edu).