• 1.

    Bentinger M, Brismar K, Dallner G. The antioxidant role of coenzyme Q. Mitochondrion 2007;7:S4150.

  • 2.

    Crane FL. Discovery of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) and an overview of function. Mitochondrion 2007;7:S2S7.

  • 3.

    Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol 2007;37:3137.

  • 4.

    Hernández-Camacho JD, Bernier M, López-Lluch G, et al. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in aging and disease. Front Physiol 2018;9:44.

  • 5.

    Shukla S, Dubey KK. CoQ10 a super-vitamin: review on application and biosynthesis. 3 Biotech 2018;8:249.

  • 6.

    Martelli A, Testai L, Colletti A, et al. Coenzyme Q10: clinical applications in cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidants (Basel) 2020;9:341.

  • 7.

    Folkers K, Vadhanavikit S, Mortensen SA. Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985;82:901904.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Molyneux SL, Florkowski CM, George PM, et al. Coenzyme Q10: an independent predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52:14351441.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lei L, Liu Y. Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in patients with cardiac failure: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2017;17:196.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    DiNicolantonio JJ, Bhutani J, McCarty MF, et al. Coenzyme Q10 for the treatment of heart failure: a review of the literature. Open Heart 2015;2:e000326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sharma A, Fonarow GC, Butler J, et al. Coenzyme Q10 and heart failure: a state-of-the-art review. Circ Heart Fail 2016;9:e002639.

  • 12.

    Jafari M, Mousavi SM, Asgharzadeh A, et al. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of heart failure: a systematic review of systematic reviews. Indian Heart J 2018;70(suppl 1):S111S117.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Jankowski J, Korzeniowska K, Cieślewicz A, et al. Coenzyme Q10—a new player in the treatment of heart failure? Pharmacol Rep 2016;68:10151019.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Belardinelli R, Muçaj A, Lacalaprice F, et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves contractility of dysfunctional myocardium in chronic heart failure. Biofactors 2005;25:137145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Tachampa K, Lertwanakarn T, Atchariyasakchai P, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on cardiac troponin I level, heart rate variability, and echocardiographic profiles in canine with myxomatous degenerative mitral valve disease: a pilot study. Wetchasan Sattawaphaet 2018;48:443452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Langsjoen PH. Lack of effect of coenzyme Q on left ventricular function in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:816817.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Keene BW, Atkins CE, Bonagura JD, et al. ACVIM consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2019;33:11271140.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Prošek M, Smidovnik A, Fir M, et al., inventors; Kemijski Institut Ljubljana, assignee. Water soluble form of coenzyme Q10 in the form of an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin, process of preparing, and use thereof. US patent WO 2005/111224A8. Aug 17, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hansen G, Christensen P, Tüchsen E, et al. Sensitive and selective analysis of coenzyme Q10 in human serum by negative APCI LC-MS. Analyst 2004;129:4550.

  • 20.

    Visconti GL, Mazzoleni L, Rusconi C, et al. Determination by UPLC/MS-MS of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in plasma of healthy volunteers before and after oral intake of food supplements containing CoQ10. J Anal Bioanal Tech 2015;S13:11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2:641649.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Harker-Murray AK, Tajik AJ, Ishikura F, et al. The role of coenzyme Q10 in the pathophysiology and therapy of experimental congestive heart failure in the dog. J Card Fail 2000;6:233242.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Dove RS. Nutritional therapy in the treatment of heart disease in dogs. Altern Med Rev 2001;6:S38S45.

  • 24.

    Prošek M, Butinar J, Lukanc B, et al. Bioavailability of water-soluble CoQ10 in Beagle dogs. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008;47:918922.

  • 25.

    Bhagavan HN, Chopra RK. Coenzyme Q10: absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Free Radic Res 2006;40:445453.

  • 26.

    Bhagavan HN, Chopra RK. Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations. Mitochondrion 2007;7:S78S88.

  • 27.

    Zmitek J, Smidovnik A, Fir M, et al. Relative bioavailability of two forms of a novel water-soluble coenzyme Q10. Ann Nutr Metab 2008;52:281287.

  • 28.

    Bank G, Kagan D, Madhavi D. Coenzyme Q10: clinical update and bioavailability. J Evid Based Integr Med 2011;16:129137.

  • 29.

    Zaghloul AA, Gurley B, Khan M, et al. Bioavailability assessment of oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in dogs. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2002;28:11951200.

  • 30.

    Bonagura JD, Schober KE. Can ventricular function be assessed by echocardiography in chronic canine mitral valve disease? J Small Anim Pract 2009;50(suppl 1):1224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Christiansen LB, Morsing MK, Reimann MJ, et al. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral dosing with coenzyme q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Antioxidants (Basel) 2020;9:827.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Seneş M, Erbay AR, Yilmaz FM, et al. Coenzyme Q10 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in ischemic and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46:382386.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Svete AN, Verk B, Seliškar A, et al. Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration, antioxidant status, and serum N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs with various cardiovascular diseases and the effect of cardiac treatment on measured variables. Am J Vet Res 2017;78:447457.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of the effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

View More View Less
  • 1 Small Animal Clinic, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • | 2 Institute of Food Safety, Feed and Environment, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).

ANIMALS

18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ10 (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was measured in dogs with MMVD before (baseline) and at various time points after supplementation began and in healthy dogs once. Concentrations were compared among and within groups.

RESULTS

No significant difference in median baseline plasma CoQ10 concentration was detected between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Fold increases in plasma CoQ10 concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and 3.2 to 6.8 for individual dogs in the 100-mg and 200-mg groups, respectively. The change in plasma CoQ10 concentration after supplementation began was significantly higher than in the placebo group at 4 hours and 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 200-mg group and at 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 100-mg group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A daily CoQ10 dose of 200 mg was sufficient to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration and may be used in CoQ10 supplementation studies involving dogs with CHF due to MMVD.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).

ANIMALS

18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ10 (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was measured in dogs with MMVD before (baseline) and at various time points after supplementation began and in healthy dogs once. Concentrations were compared among and within groups.

RESULTS

No significant difference in median baseline plasma CoQ10 concentration was detected between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Fold increases in plasma CoQ10 concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and 3.2 to 6.8 for individual dogs in the 100-mg and 200-mg groups, respectively. The change in plasma CoQ10 concentration after supplementation began was significantly higher than in the placebo group at 4 hours and 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 200-mg group and at 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 100-mg group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A daily CoQ10 dose of 200 mg was sufficient to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration and may be used in CoQ10 supplementation studies involving dogs with CHF due to MMVD.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 249 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Nemec Svete (alenka.nemecsvete@vf.uni-lj.si).