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Cardiopulmonary effects of an intravenous infusion of fentanyl in cats during isoflurane anesthesia and with concurrent acepromazine or dexmedetomidine administration during anesthetic recovery

Stephanie C. J. Keating DVM, DVSc1 and Carolyn L. Kerr DVM, DVSc, PhD2
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of IV administration of fentanyl to cats anesthetized with isoflurane and during anesthetic recovery with concurrent administration of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received an IV bolus (5 μg/kg) followed by an IV infusion (5 μg/kg/h) of fentanyl for 120 minutes during isoflurane anesthesia and for 30 minutes after discontinuing isoflurane. Cats were randomly assigned in a crossover study to receive acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) or dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg), IV, when isoflurane was discontinued. Cardiopulmonary data were obtained during anesthesia and for 30 minutes during the anesthetic recovery period.

RESULTS

The administration of fentanyl during isoflurane anesthesia resulted in a transient increase in arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and oxygen delivery. Compared with values during isoflurane anesthesia, administration of dexmedetomidine during anesthetic recovery resulted in significant decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, and oxygen delivery and significant increases in arterial, central venous, and mean pulmonary artery pressures; systemic vascular resistance index; and oxygen extraction ratio. Administration of acepromazine resulted in increases in heart rate, cardiac index, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction ratio. Oxygen extraction ratio did not differ between acepromazine and dexmedetomidine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Fentanyl transiently improved indices of cardiopulmonary performance when administered to healthy cats anesthetized with isoflurane. The cardiovascular effects of acepromazine and dexmedetomidine in healthy cats receiving fentanyl during recovery from isoflurane anesthesia differed, but measured cardiopulmonary parameters remained within acceptable limits.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of IV administration of fentanyl to cats anesthetized with isoflurane and during anesthetic recovery with concurrent administration of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received an IV bolus (5 μg/kg) followed by an IV infusion (5 μg/kg/h) of fentanyl for 120 minutes during isoflurane anesthesia and for 30 minutes after discontinuing isoflurane. Cats were randomly assigned in a crossover study to receive acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) or dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg), IV, when isoflurane was discontinued. Cardiopulmonary data were obtained during anesthesia and for 30 minutes during the anesthetic recovery period.

RESULTS

The administration of fentanyl during isoflurane anesthesia resulted in a transient increase in arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and oxygen delivery. Compared with values during isoflurane anesthesia, administration of dexmedetomidine during anesthetic recovery resulted in significant decreases in cardiac index, stroke index, and oxygen delivery and significant increases in arterial, central venous, and mean pulmonary artery pressures; systemic vascular resistance index; and oxygen extraction ratio. Administration of acepromazine resulted in increases in heart rate, cardiac index, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction ratio. Oxygen extraction ratio did not differ between acepromazine and dexmedetomidine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Fentanyl transiently improved indices of cardiopulmonary performance when administered to healthy cats anesthetized with isoflurane. The cardiovascular effects of acepromazine and dexmedetomidine in healthy cats receiving fentanyl during recovery from isoflurane anesthesia differed, but measured cardiopulmonary parameters remained within acceptable limits.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Keating (skeating@illinois.edu).