• 1.

    Binder C, Katic N, Aurich JE, et al. Postoperative complications and owner assessment of single portal laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs. Vet Rec 2018;183:745.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hancock RB, Lanz OI, Waldron DR, et al. Comparison of postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy by harmonic scalpel-assisted laparoscopy compared with median celiotomy and ligation in dogs. Vet Surg 2005;34:273282.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Haraguchi T, Kimura S, Itoh H, et al. Comparison of postoperative pain and inflammation reaction in dogs undergoing preventive laparoscopic-assisted and incisional gastropexy. J Vet Med Sci 2017;79:15241531.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gauthier O, Holopherne-Doran D, Gendarme T, et al. Assessment of postoperative pain in cats after ovariectomy by laparoscopy, median celiotomy, or flank laparotomy. Vet Surg 2015;44(suppl 1):2330.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    McClaran JK, Skerrett SC, Currao RL, et al. Comparison of laparoscopic-assisted technique and open laparotomy for gastrointestinal biopsy in cats. Vet Surg 2017;46:821828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Devitt CM, Cox RE, Hailey JJ. Duration, complications, stress, and pain of open ovariohysterectomy versus a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:921927.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Freeman LJ, Rahmani EY, Al-Haddad M, et al. Comparison of pain and postoperative stress in dogs undergoing natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, laparoscopic, and open oophorectomy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010;72:373380.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Stedile R, Beck CAC, Schiochet F, et al. Laparoscopic versus open splenectomy in dogs. Pesqui Vet Bras 2009;29:653660.

  • 9.

    Davidson EB, Moll HD, Payton ME. Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Vet Surg 2004;33:6269.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Culp WT, Mayhew PD, Brown DC. The effect of laparoscopic versus open ovariectomy on postsurgical activity in small dogs. Vet Surg 2009;38:811817.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mayhew PD, Culp WT, Hunt GB, et al. Comparison of perioperative morbidity and mortality rates in dogs with noninvasive adrenocortical masses undergoing laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;245:10281035.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Singh A, Hoddinott K, Morrison S, et al. Perioperative characteristics of dogs undergoing open versus laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy for treatment of cystic calculi: 89 cases (2011–2015). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;249:14011407.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Charlesworth TM, Sanchez FT. A comparison of the rates of postoperative complications between dogs undergoing laparoscopic and open ovariectomy. J Small Anim Pract 2019;60:218222.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Shariati E, Bakhtiari J, Khalaj A, et al. Comparison between two portal laparoscopy and open surgery for ovariectomy in dogs. Vet Res Forum 2014;5:219223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Coleman KA, Monnet E, Johnston M. Single port laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in three rabbits. J Exot Pet Med 2018;27:2124.

  • 16.

    Mehler SJ. Minimally invasive surgery techniques in exotic animals. J Exot Pet Med 2011;20:188205.

  • 17.

    Divers SJ. Clinical technique: endoscopic oophorectomy in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): the future of preventative sterilizations. J Exot Pet Med 2010;19:231239.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Divers SJ. Endoscopic ovariectomy of exotic mammals using a three-port approach. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2015;18:401415.

  • 19.

    Divers SJ. Exotic mammal diagnostic endoscopy and endosurgery. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2010;13:255272.

  • 20.

    Proença LM. Two-portal access laparoscopic ovariectomy using ligasure atlas in exotic companion mammals. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2015;18:587596.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Proença LM, Camus M, Nemeth N, et al. Diagnostic quality of percutaneous fine-needle aspirates and laparoscopic biopsy specimens of the liver in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:313320.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Telles de Sousa ID, Candido dos Reis FJ, Brito Garcia S, et al. Adhesion formation after uterine horn resection in rabbit model: comparative study of laparoscopic procedure vs laparotomy. Gynaecol Endosc 2002;11:365369.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Chaniotakis I, Antoniou E, Kostomitsopoulos N, et al. Stress response to ovariohysterectomy in rabbits: role of anaesthesia and surgery. J Obstet Gynaecol 2018;38:697701.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mayer J. Use of behavior analysis to recognize pain in small mammals. Lab Anim (NY) 2007;36:4348.

  • 25.

    Weary DM, Niel L, Flower FC, et al. Identifying and preventing pain in animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006;100:6476.

  • 26.

    Keating SC, Thomas AA, Flecknell PA, et al. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses. PLoS One 2012;7:e44437.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Schnellbacher RW, Divers SJ, Comolli JR, et al. Effects of intravenous administration of lidocaine and buprenorphine on gastrointestinal tract motility and signs of pain in New Zealand White rabbits after ovariohysterectomy. Am J Vet Res 2017;78:13591371.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Weaver LA, Blaze CA, Linder DE, et al. A model for clinical evaluation of perioperative analgesia in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2010;49:845851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Lichtenberger M, Lennox A. Updates and advanced therapies for gastrointestinal stasis in rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2010;13:525541.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Kabakchiev CM, zur Linden AR, Singh A, et al. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on laparoscopic working space in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Am J Vet Res 2020;81:7783.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Kabakchiev C, Valverde A, Singh A, et al. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Can J Vet Res 2020;84:108114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Leach MC, Allweiler S, Richardson C, et al. Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy and oral administration of meloxicam in laboratory housed rabbits. Res Vet Sci 2009;87:336347.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Farnworth M, Walker J, Schweizer K, et al. Potential behavioural indicators of post-operative pain in male laboratory rabbits following abdominal surgery. Anim Welf 2011;20:225237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Hampshire V, Robertson S. Using the facial grimace scale to evaluate rabbit wellness in post-procedural monitoring. Lab Anim (NY) 2015;44:259260.

  • 35.

    Wickham H. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009.

  • 36.

    Mayhew PD, Freeman L, Kwan T, et al. Comparison of surgical site infection rates in clean and clean-contaminated wounds in dogs and cats after minimally invasive versus open surgery: 179 cases (2007–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:193198.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Luciano AA, Maier DB, Koch EI, et al. A comparative study of postoperative adhesions following laser surgery by laparoscopy versus laparotomy in the rabbit model. Obstet Gynecol 1989;74:220224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Jorgensen JO, Lalak NJ, Hunt DR. Is laparoscopy associated with a lower rate of postoperative adhesions than laparotomy? A comparative study in the rabbit. Aust N Z J Surg 1995;65:342344.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Klaphake E, Paul-Murphy J. Disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. St Louis: Elsevier, 2012;217231.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Bertram CA, Muller K, Klopfleisch R. Genital tract pathology in female pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a retrospective study of 854 necropsy examinations and 152 biopsy samples. J Comp Pathol 2018;164:1726.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Lee HW, Machin H, Adami C. Peri-anaesthetic mortality and nonfatal gastrointestinal complications in pet rabbits: a retrospective study on 210 cases. Vet Anaesth Analg 2018;45:520528.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Brodbelt DC, Blissitt KJ, Hammond RA, et al. The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008;35:365373.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Ordoñez JL, Domínguez J, Evrard V, et al. The effect of training and duration of surgery on adhesion formation in the rabbit model. Hum Reprod 1997;12:26542657.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Pope JF, Knowles TG. Retrospective analysis of the learning curve associated with laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs and associated perioperative complication rates. Vet Surg 2014;43:668677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Coisman JG, Case JB, Shih A, et al. Comparison of surgical variables in cats undergoing single-incision laparoscopic ovariectomy using a LigaSure or extracorporeal suture versus open ovariectomy. Vet Surg 2014;43:3844.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Yesildaglar N, Koninckx PR. Adhesion formation in intubated rabbits increases with high insufflation pressure during endoscopic surgery. Hum Reprod 2000;15:687691.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    McCracken BD, Beths T, Herbert S, et al. Comparison of isobaric and insufflated laparoscopy-assisted ovariohysterectomy in the common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Exot Pet Med 2019;28:193204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Szeto A, Gonzales JA, Spitzer SB, et al. Circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones in WHHL and NZW rabbits: circadian cycle and response to repeated social encounter. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004;29:861866.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Préfontaine L, Helie P, Vachon P. Postoperative pain in Sprague Dawley rats after liver biopsy by laparotomy versus laparoscopy. Lab Anim (NY) 2015;44:174178.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Richards C, Edwards J, Culver D, et al. Does using a laparoscopic approach to cholecystectomy decrease the risk of surgical site infection? Ann Surg 2003;237:358362.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Varela JE, Wilson SE, Nguyen NT. Laparoscopic surgery significantly reduces surgical-site infections compared with open surgery. Surg Endosc 2010;24:270276.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Kössler-Ebs JB, Grummich K, Jensen K, et al. Incisional hernia rates after laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery—a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Surg 2016;40:23192330.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Case JB, Marvel SJ, Boscan P, et al. Surgical time and severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy with one, two, or three instrument cannulas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:203208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Lee DW, Kim MJ, Lee YK, et al. Does intraabdominal pressure affect development of subcutaneous emphysema at gynecologic laparoscopy? J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2011;18:761765.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Kim YK, Park SJ, Lee SY, et al. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in dogs: an initial experience of 16 experimental procedures. Vet J 2013;198:513517.

  • 56.

    Murdock CM, Wolff AJ, Van Geem T. Risk factors for hypercarbia, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum during laparoscopy. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:704709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Ott DE. Subcutaneous emphysema—beyond the pneumoperitoneum. JSLS 2014;18:17.

  • 58.

    Mayhew PD. Complications of minimally invasive surgery in companion animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2011;41:10071021, vii–viii.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Dupré G, Fiorbianco V, Skalicky M, et al. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs: comparison between single portal and two-portal access. Vet Surg 2009;38:818824.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Mayhew PD, Brown DC. Prospective evaluation of two intracorporeally sutured prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy techniques compared with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs. Vet Surg 2009;38:738746.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Loy Son NK, Singh A, Amsellem P, et al. Long-term outcome and complications following prophylactic laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs. Vet Surg 2016;45(S1):O77O83.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of intra− and postoperative variables between laparoscopic and open ovariectomy in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Claudia Kabakchiev DVM, DVSc1, Ameet Singh DVM, DVSc1, Samantha Dobson1, and Hugues Beaufrère DVM, PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

Twelve 4− to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a vessel-sealing device used to seal and transect the ovarian pedicles. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with a 3-port approach. Variables were measured during surgery (surgery and anesthesia times and incision lengths) and for up to 7 days after surgery (food consumption, feces production, body weight, vital parameters, blood glucose and cortisol concentrations, abdominal palpation findings, facial grimace scale scores, and ethograms).

RESULTS

Mean surgery (43.2 vs 21.7 minutes) and anesthesia (76.2 vs 48.8 minutes) times were longer and mean incision length was shorter (24.0 vs 41.5 mm) for LapOVE versus OVE. No significant differences in postoperative variables were identified between groups. During LapOVE, small intestinal perforation occurred in 1 rabbit, which was then euthanized. Postoperative complications for the remaining rabbits included superficial incisional dehiscence (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 2/6), subcutaneous emphysema (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6), and seroma formation (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgery time for LapOVE was twice that of OVE, and LapOVE resulted in unique complications in rabbits. No evidence of a reduction in pain or faster return to baseline physiologic status was found for LapOVE. Further evaluation of LapOVE in rabbits is warranted, with modification to techniques used in this study or a larger sample size.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

Twelve 4− to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a vessel-sealing device used to seal and transect the ovarian pedicles. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with a 3-port approach. Variables were measured during surgery (surgery and anesthesia times and incision lengths) and for up to 7 days after surgery (food consumption, feces production, body weight, vital parameters, blood glucose and cortisol concentrations, abdominal palpation findings, facial grimace scale scores, and ethograms).

RESULTS

Mean surgery (43.2 vs 21.7 minutes) and anesthesia (76.2 vs 48.8 minutes) times were longer and mean incision length was shorter (24.0 vs 41.5 mm) for LapOVE versus OVE. No significant differences in postoperative variables were identified between groups. During LapOVE, small intestinal perforation occurred in 1 rabbit, which was then euthanized. Postoperative complications for the remaining rabbits included superficial incisional dehiscence (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 2/6), subcutaneous emphysema (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6), and seroma formation (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgery time for LapOVE was twice that of OVE, and LapOVE resulted in unique complications in rabbits. No evidence of a reduction in pain or faster return to baseline physiologic status was found for LapOVE. Further evaluation of LapOVE in rabbits is warranted, with modification to techniques used in this study or a larger sample size.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 175 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S2 (PDF 198 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S3 (PDF 174 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S4 (PDF 186 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S5 (PDF 398 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S6 (PDF 170 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure S7 (PDF 176 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 188 kb)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kabakchiev's present address is VCA Canada 404 Veterinary Emergency and Referral Hospital, Newmarket, ON L3Y 0B3, Canada.

Address correspondence to Dr. Beaufrère (beaufrer@uoguelph.ca).