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Safety and efficacy of cold atmospheric plasma for the sterilization of a Pasteurella multocida–contaminated subcutaneously implanted foreign body in rabbits

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  • 1 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078
  • | 2 From the Department Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078
  • | 3 From the Department of Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078
  • | 4 Plasma Bionics LLC, Stillwater, OK 74074

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.

ANIMALS

31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.

RESULTS

Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.

ANIMALS

31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.

RESULTS

Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 129 KB)
    • Supplementary Figure S2 (PDF 210 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 124 KB)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Avellar's present address is the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Dr. Bailey's present address is the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Address correspondence to Dr. Williams (megan.williams12@okstate.edu).