• 1. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2013, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Available at: seer.cancer.gov/archive/csr/1975_2013/. Accessed Mar 30, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Arlt SP, Haimerl P. Cystic ovaries and ovarian neoplasia in the female dog—a systematic review. Reprod Domest Anim 2016;51(suppl 1):311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Patnaik AK, Greenlee PG. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors. Vet Pathol 1987;24:509514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Chang SJ, Bristow RE. Evolution of surgical treatment paradigms for advanced-stage ovarian cancer: redefining “optimal” residual disease. Gynecol Oncol 2012;125:483492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Hamilton CA, Miller A, Casablanca Y, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics associated with long-term survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: an NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group ancillary data study. Gynecol Oncol 2018;148:275280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Schorge JO, Bregar AJ, Durfee J, et al. Meigs to modern times: the evolution of debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2018;149:447454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Cardenas-Goicoechea J, Wang Y, McGorray S, et al. Minimally invasive interval cytoreductive surgery in ovarian cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Robot Surg 2019;13:2333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Culp WT, Mayhew PD, Brown DC. The effect of laparoscopic versus open ovariectomy on postsurgical activity in small dogs. Vet Surg 2009;38:811817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Devitt CM, Cox RE, Hailey JJ. Duration, complications, stress, and pain of open ovariohysterectomy versus a simple method of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:921927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Mayhew PD, Freeman L, Kwan T. Comparison of surgical site infection rates in clean and clean-contaminated wounds in dogs and cats after minimally invasive versus open surgery: 179 cases (2007–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:193198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Austin B, Lanz OI, Hamilton SM, et al. Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in nine dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2003;39:391396.

  • 12. Case JB, Marvel SJ, Boscan P, et al. Surgical time and severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy with one, two, or three instrument cannulas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:203208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Lopez D, Singh A, Wright TF, et al. Single incision laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy for an ovarian tumor in a dog. Can Vet J 2017;58:975979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Freeman LJ, Rahmani EY, Sherman S, et al. Oophorectomy by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: feasibility study in dogs. Gastrointest Endosc 2009;69:13211332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Freeman LJ, Rahmani EY, Al-Haddad M, et al. Comparison of pain and postoperative stress in dogs undergoing natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, laparoscopic, and open oophorectomy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010;72:373380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Zhou J, Wu SG, Wang JJ, et al. Ovarian ablation using goserelin improves survival of premenopausal patients with stage II/III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer without chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. Cancer Res Treat 2015;47:5563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Ahmed M, Brace CL, Lee FT Jr, et al. Principles of and advances in percutaneous ablation. Radiology 2011;258:351369.

  • 18. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatocellular carcinoma (Erratum published in J Hepatol 2019;70:817). J Hepatol 2018;69:182236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Yang T, Case JB, Boston S, et al. Microwave ablation for treatment of hepatic neoplasia in five dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:7985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Oramas A, Case JB, Toskich BB, et al. Laparoscopic access to the liver and application of laparoscopic microwave ablation in 2 dogs with liver neoplasia. Vet Surg 2019;48(suppl 1):O91-O98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Mazzaccari K, Boston SE, Toskich BB, et al. Video-assisted microwave ablation for the treatment of a metastatic lung lesion in a dog with appendicular osteosarcoma and hypertrophic osteopathy. Vet Surg 2017;46:11611165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Che Y, Jin S, Shi C, et al. Treatment of benign thyroid nodules: comparison of surgery with radiofrequency ablation. Am J Neuroradiol 2015;36:13211325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Guan W, Bai J, Liu J, et al. Microwave ablation versus partial nephrectomy for small renal tumors: intermediate-term results. J Surg Oncol 2012;106:316321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Cooper KG, Bain C, Parkin DE. Comparison of microwave endometrial ablation and transcervical resection of the endometrium for treatment of heavy menstrual loss: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:18591863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Alexander ES, Machan JT, Ng T, et al. Cost and effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation versus limited surgical resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients: is less more? J Vasc Interv Radiol 2013;24:476482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. McGhana JP, Dodd GD III. Radiofrequency ablation of the liver: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001;176:316.

  • 27. Brace CL. Microwave ablation technology: what every user should know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2009;38:6167.

  • 28. Yu J, Liang P, Yu X, et al. A comparison of microwave ablation and bipolar radiofrequency ablation both with an internally cooled probe: results in ex vivo and in vivo porcine livers. Eur J Radiol 2011;79:124130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Yu NC, Raman SS, Kim YJ, et al. Microwave liver ablation: influence of hepatic vein size on heat-sink effect in a porcine model. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19:10871092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Brace CL, Laeseke PF, Sampson LA, et al. Microwave ablation with multiple simultaneously powered small-gauge triaxial antennas: results from an in vivo swine liver model. Radiology 2007;244:151156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Wright AS, Lee FT Jr, Mahvi DM. Hepatic microwave ablation with multiple antennae results in synergistically larger zones of coagulation necrosis. Ann Surg Oncol 2003;10:275283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Epstein ME, Rodan I, Griffenhagen G, et al. 2015 AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. J Feline Med Surg 2015;17:251272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Dindo D, Demartines N, Clavien PA. Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey. Ann Surg 2004;240:205213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Butler-Manuel S, Lippiatt J, Madhuri TK. Interval debulking surgery following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IVB ovarian cancer using neutral argon plasma (PlasmaJet). Gynecol Oncol 2014;135:622623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Madhuri TK, Papatheodorou D, Tailor A, et al. First clinical experience of argon neutral plasma energy in gynaecological surgery in the UK. Gynecol Surg 2010;7:423425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Thomsen S. Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions. Photochem Photobiol 1991;53:825835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Nikfarjam M, Muralidharan V, Christophi C. Mechanisms of focal heat destruction of liver tumors. J Surg Res 2005;127:208223.

  • 38. Pavlik EJ, DePriest PD, Gallion HH, et al. Ovarian volume related to age. Gynecol Oncol 2000;77:410412.

Advertisement

Feasibility and efficacy of ultrasonographic and laparoscopic guidance for microwave ablation of clinically normal canine ovaries

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32608.
  • | 2 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.
  • | 3 3VCA 404 Veterinary Emergency and Referral Hospital, Newmarket, ON L3Y 0B3, Canada.
  • | 4 4Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the optimal energy profile for and to assess the feasibility and efficacy of ultrasonographic and laparoscopic guidance for microwave ablation (MWA) of clinically normal canine ovaries.

SAMPLE

44 extirpated ovaries from 22 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In the first of 2 trials, 13 dogs underwent oophorectomy by routine laparotomy. Extirpated ovaries underwent MWA at 45 W for 60 (n = 11) or 90 (12) seconds; 3 ovaries did not undergo MWA and served as histologic controls. Ovaries were histologically evaluated for cell viability. Ovaries without viable cells were categorized as completely ablated. Histologic results were used to identify the optimal MWA protocol for use in the subsequent trial. In the second trial, the ovaries of 9 dogs underwent MWA at 45 W for 90 seconds in situ. Ultrasonographic guidance for MWA was deemed unfeasible after evaluation of 1 ovary. The remaining 17 ovaries underwent MWA with laparoscopic guidance, after which routine laparoscopic oophorectomy was performed. Completeness of ablation was histologically assessed for all ovaries.

RESULTS

2 ovaries were excluded from the trial 1 analysis because of equivocal cell viability. Six of 11 ovaries and 10 of 10 ovaries that underwent MWA for 60 and 90 seconds, respectively, were completely ablated. In trial 2, laparoscopic-guided MWA resulted in complete ablation for 12 of 17 ovaries. Dissection of the ovarian bursa for MWA probe placement facilitated complete ablation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Laparoscopic-guided MWA at 45 W for 90 seconds was feasible, safe, and effective for complete ablation of clinically normal ovaries in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Case (caseb@ufl.edu).