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Pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin following intramuscular administration of a single dose in koi (Cyprinus carpio)

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  • 1 1Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 2Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 3Department of Anatomic Pathology Service, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 4The K. L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin following IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) in koi (Cyprinus carpio).

ANIMALS

69 healthy adult koi housed in a 980-L flow-through-system tank.

PROCEDURES

3 fish were kept as untreated controls, and the remaining 66 fish were assigned to 11 treatment groups with 6 fish/group. Fish in the treatment groups were given a single dose of danofloxacin (10 mg/kg) IM in the left epaxial musculature. Fifteen, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 4, 12, 24, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after administration of danofloxacin, fish in each treatment group were euthanized, and blood samples and samples of liver, spleen, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin and muscle, and scales were collected. Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Tissues from the untreated control fish and fish euthanized 144 hours after danofloxacin administration were examined histologically.

RESULTS

Maximum plasma concentration (mean, 8,315.7 ng/mL) was reached approximately 45 minutes after danofloxacin administration; plasma elimination half-life was 15 hours. Danofloxacin was detected in all examined tissues from all 6 fish euthanized 15 minutes after drug administration and was detected in some tissues from 3 of the 6 fish euthanized 144 hours after drug administration. For all tissues, results of histologic examination were unremarkable.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) of danofloxacin in koi resulted in rapid absorption, with maximum plasma concentration reached approximately 45 minutes after drug administration; the drug could still be detected in some tissues 144 hours after administration.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin following IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) in koi (Cyprinus carpio).

ANIMALS

69 healthy adult koi housed in a 980-L flow-through-system tank.

PROCEDURES

3 fish were kept as untreated controls, and the remaining 66 fish were assigned to 11 treatment groups with 6 fish/group. Fish in the treatment groups were given a single dose of danofloxacin (10 mg/kg) IM in the left epaxial musculature. Fifteen, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 4, 12, 24, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after administration of danofloxacin, fish in each treatment group were euthanized, and blood samples and samples of liver, spleen, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin and muscle, and scales were collected. Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Tissues from the untreated control fish and fish euthanized 144 hours after danofloxacin administration were examined histologically.

RESULTS

Maximum plasma concentration (mean, 8,315.7 ng/mL) was reached approximately 45 minutes after danofloxacin administration; plasma elimination half-life was 15 hours. Danofloxacin was detected in all examined tissues from all 6 fish euthanized 15 minutes after drug administration and was detected in some tissues from 3 of the 6 fish euthanized 144 hours after drug administration. For all tissues, results of histologic examination were unremarkable.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) of danofloxacin in koi resulted in rapid absorption, with maximum plasma concentration reached approximately 45 minutes after drug administration; the drug could still be detected in some tissues 144 hours after administration.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Parker-Graham's present address is the Pacific Region Fish Health Program, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Lacey, WA 98503.

Dr. Siniard's present address is the Institute of Agriculture, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Address correspondence to Dr. Soto (sotomartinez@ucdavis.edu).