• 1. Lamont LA, Mathews KA. Opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and analgesic adjuvants. In: Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Grimm KA, eds. Lumb & Jones' veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2007;241271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Johnson JA, Robertson SA, Pypendop BH. Antinociceptive effects of butorphanol, buprenorphine, or both, administered intramuscularly in cats. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:699703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Guzman DS, Drazenovich TL, KuKanich B, et al. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of butorphanol tartrate to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Am J Vet Res 2014;75:1118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Sladky KK, Krugner-Higby L, Meek-Walker E, et al. Serum concentrations and analgesic effects of liposome-encapsulated and standard butorphanol tartrate in parrots. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:775781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Ceulemans SM, Guzman DS, Olsen GH, et al. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Am J Vet Res 2014;75:705710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Guzman DS, Houck EL, Knych HKD, et al. Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:12391245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Paul-Murphy JR, Brunson DB, Miletic V. A technique for evaluating analgesia in conscious perching birds. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:12131217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Evrard HC, Balthazart J. The assessment of nociceptive and non-nociceptive skin sensitivity in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). J Neurosci Methods 2002;116:135146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Houck EL, Guzman DS, Beaufrère H, et al. Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:820827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Guzman DS, KuKanich B, Drazenovich TL, et al. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Am J Vet Res 2014;75:527531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Guzman DS, Ceulemans SM, Beaufrère H, et al. Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects of a sustained-release buprenorphine formulation after intramuscular administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). J Avian Med Surg 2018;32:17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Hothersall B, Caplen G, Nicol CJ, et al. Development of mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold testing devices in unrestrained birds (broiler chickens). J Neurosci Methods 2011;201:220227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Paul-Murphy JR, Sladky KK, Krugner-Higby LA, et al. Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome- encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis. Am J Vet Res 2009;70:12011210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Paul-Murphy JR, Krugner-Higby LA, Tourdot RL, et al. Evaluation of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate for alleviation of experimentally induced arthritic pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae). Am J Vet Res 2009;70:12111219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Paul-Murphy JR, Brunson DB, Miletic V. Analgesic effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in conscious African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh). Am J Vet Res 1999;60:12181221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Guzman DS, Flammer K, Paul-Murphy JR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). J Avian Med Surg 2011;25:185191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Robertson SA. What is pain? J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:202205.

  • 18. Laniesse D, Smith DA, Knych HK, et al. In vitro characterization of a formulation of butorphanol tartrate in a poloxamer 407 base intended for use as a parenterally administered slow-release analgesic agent. Am J Vet Res 2017;78:677687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Laniesse D, Guzman DS, Knych HK, et al. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2017;78:688694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Dumortier G, Grossiord JL, Agnely F, et al. A review of poloxamer 407 pharmaceutical and pharmacological characteristics. Pharm Res 2006;23:27092728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Geelen S, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Souza MJ, et al. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2013;74:201206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Wells SM, Glerum LE, Papich MG. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol in cats after intramuscular and buccal transmucosal administration. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:15481554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Sellon DC, Monroe VL, Roberts MC, et al. Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of butorphanol administered by single intravenous injection or continuous intravenous infusion in horses. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:183189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Paavola A, Yliruusi J, Kajimiti Y, et al. Controlled release of lidocaine from injectable gels and efficacy in rat sciatic nerve block. Pharm Res 1995;12:19972002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Blonder JM, Baird L, Fulfs JC, et al. Dose-dependent hyperlipidemia in rabbits following administration of poloxamer 407 gel. Life Sci 1999;65:PL261PL266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Naik H, Kolur A, Maled D, et al. Effect of poloxamer 407 on serum VLDL, LDL and HDL levels of rabbits. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2014;5:221224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Wout ZGM, Pec EA, Maggiore JA, et al. Poloxamer 407-mediated changes in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides following intraperitoneal injection to rats. J Parenter Sci Technol 1992;46:192200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Hoare TR, Kohane DS. Hydrogels in drug delivery: progress and challenges. Polymer (Guildf) 2008;49:19932007.

Advertisement

Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects of subcutaneous administration of butorphanol tartrate or butorphanol tartrate in a sustained-release poloxamer 407 gel formulation to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica)

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 2 2Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 3 3Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 4Anesthesiology and Pain Service, 404 Veterinary Emergency & Referral Hospital, Newmarket, ON L3Y 0B3, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol tartrate and butorphanol tartrate in a sustained-release 25% poloxamer 407 (P407) gel formulation (But-P407) in parrots.

ANIMALS

13 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

PROCEDURES

First, butorphanol tartrate (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM to birds in a randomized complete crossover design. The temperature prompting a foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus (ie, the thermal threshold) was determined 30 minutes before (baseline) and at various points after treatment administration. Second, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or P407 was administered SC in a similar crossover design. Thermal threshold was determined before and at various points after treatment administration. Third, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or saline solution was administered SC and evaluated as in the second trial. Sedation was scored immediately before each time point in all 3 trials.

RESULTS

In the first trial, a significant increase in thermal threshold was noted 30 minutes after butorphanol tartrate (vs saline solution) administration. No sedation was noted. In the second and third trials, no significant difference was identified between results for But-P407 and those for either control treatment (saline solution or P407). Mild sedation was noted in the second trial following But-P407 administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested a small but significant thermal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate lasting between 30 minutes and 1.5 hours in orange-winged Amazon parrots. No antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate was demonstrated when delivered in P407. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential analgesic effects of But-P407.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol tartrate and butorphanol tartrate in a sustained-release 25% poloxamer 407 (P407) gel formulation (But-P407) in parrots.

ANIMALS

13 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

PROCEDURES

First, butorphanol tartrate (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM to birds in a randomized complete crossover design. The temperature prompting a foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus (ie, the thermal threshold) was determined 30 minutes before (baseline) and at various points after treatment administration. Second, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or P407 was administered SC in a similar crossover design. Thermal threshold was determined before and at various points after treatment administration. Third, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or saline solution was administered SC and evaluated as in the second trial. Sedation was scored immediately before each time point in all 3 trials.

RESULTS

In the first trial, a significant increase in thermal threshold was noted 30 minutes after butorphanol tartrate (vs saline solution) administration. No sedation was noted. In the second and third trials, no significant difference was identified between results for But-P407 and those for either control treatment (saline solution or P407). Mild sedation was noted in the second trial following But-P407 administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested a small but significant thermal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate lasting between 30 minutes and 1.5 hours in orange-winged Amazon parrots. No antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate was demonstrated when delivered in P407. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential analgesic effects of But-P407.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman (guzman@ucdavis.edu).

Dr. Laniesse's present address is Eläinsairaala Evidensia Tammisto, 01510 Vantaa, Finland.