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Evaluation of relationships between results of electrocardiography and echocardiography in 341 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

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  • 1 1School of Sport and Health Sciences, International Primate Heart Project, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff CF5 2YB, England.
  • | 2 2Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Jane Goodall Institute, Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo.
  • | 3 3Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust, Chingola 50100, Zambia.
  • | 4 4Zoological Society of London, Veterinary Department, London Zoo, Regents Park, London NW1 4RY, England.
  • | 5 5Department of Biological Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
  • | 6 6Buin Zoo, Buin, Chile.
  • | 7 7Veterinary Medical Center, Oregon Zoo, Portland, OR 97221.
  • | 8 8Animal Advocacy and Protection Rescue Centre for Exotic Animals, Almere, Netherlands.
  • | 9 9International Animal Rescue, Ketapang, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  • | 10 10Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
  • | 11 11Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE7 7XA, England.
  • | 12 12Water Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2531, South Africa.
  • | 13 13Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UA, England.
  • | 14 14Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Development, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS

341 chimpanzees (175 males and 166 females) from 5 sanctuaries and 2 zoological collections.

PROCEDURES

Chimpanzees were anesthetized for routine health examinations between May 2011 and July 2017 as part of the International Primate Heart Project and, during the same anesthetic events, underwent 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiographic assessments. Relationships between results for ECG and those for echocardiographic measures of atrial areas, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd), and mean left ventricular wall thicknesses (MLVWT) were assessed with correlational analysis, then multiple linear regression analyses were used to create hierarchical models to predict cardiac structure from ECG findings.

RESULTS

Findings indicated correlations (r = −0.231 to 0.310) between results for ECG variables and echocardiographic measures. The duration and amplitude of P waves in lead II had the strongest correlations with atrial areas. The Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and R-wave amplitude in leads V6 and II had the strongest correlations with MLVWT, whereas the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and S-wave amplitude in leads V2 and V1 had the strongest correlations with LVIDd. However, the ECG predictive models that were generated only accounted for 17%, 7%, 11%, and 8% of the variance in the right atrial end-systolic area, left atrial end-systolic area, MLVWT, and LVIDd, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relationships existed between ECG findings and cardiac morphology in the chimpanzees of the present study; however, further research is required to examine whether the predictive models generated can be modified to improve their clinical utility.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS

341 chimpanzees (175 males and 166 females) from 5 sanctuaries and 2 zoological collections.

PROCEDURES

Chimpanzees were anesthetized for routine health examinations between May 2011 and July 2017 as part of the International Primate Heart Project and, during the same anesthetic events, underwent 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiographic assessments. Relationships between results for ECG and those for echocardiographic measures of atrial areas, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd), and mean left ventricular wall thicknesses (MLVWT) were assessed with correlational analysis, then multiple linear regression analyses were used to create hierarchical models to predict cardiac structure from ECG findings.

RESULTS

Findings indicated correlations (r = −0.231 to 0.310) between results for ECG variables and echocardiographic measures. The duration and amplitude of P waves in lead II had the strongest correlations with atrial areas. The Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and R-wave amplitude in leads V6 and II had the strongest correlations with MLVWT, whereas the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and S-wave amplitude in leads V2 and V1 had the strongest correlations with LVIDd. However, the ECG predictive models that were generated only accounted for 17%, 7%, 11%, and 8% of the variance in the right atrial end-systolic area, left atrial end-systolic area, MLVWT, and LVIDd, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relationships existed between ECG findings and cardiac morphology in the chimpanzees of the present study; however, further research is required to examine whether the predictive models generated can be modified to improve their clinical utility.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Drane (adrane@cardiffmet.ac.uk).