• 1. Rollin BE. Annual meeting keynote address: animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals. J Anim Sci 2004;82:955964.

  • 2. Weary DM, Fraser D. Rethinking painful management practices. In: Benson GJ, Rollin BE, eds. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2004;325338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Adcock SJJ, Tucker CB. Painful procedures: when and what should we be measuring in cattle? In: Tucker CB, ed. Advances in cattle welfare. Cambridge, England: Elsevier Ltd, 2018;157198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. FDA. Guidance for industry: development of target animal safety and effectiveness data to support approval of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for use in animals. Available at: www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/ucm052663.pdf. Accessed Jan 20, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Stubsjoen SM, Valle PS, Zanella AJ. The use of a hand-held algometer as a method to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in sheep. Anim Welf 2010;19:3136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Tapper KR, Johnson AK, Karriker LA, et al. Pressure algometry and thermal sensitivity for assessing pain sensitivity and effects of flunixin meglumine and sodium salicylate in a transient lameness model in sows. Livest Sci 2013;157:245253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Le Bars D, Gozariu M, Cadden SW. Animal models of nociception. Pharmacol Rev 2001;53:597652.

  • 8. Haussler KK, Hill AE, Frisbie DD, et al. Determination and use of mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the thoracic limb to assess pain associated with induced osteoarthritis of the middle carpal joint in horses. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:11671176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Whay HR, Waterman AE, Webster AJ, et al. The influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattle. Vet J 1998;156:2329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Dyer RM, Neerchal NK, Tasch U, et al. Objective determination of claw pain and its relationship to limb locomotion score in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:45924602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Schulz KL, Anderson DE, Coetzee JF, et al. Effect of flunixin meglumine on the amelioration of lameness in dairy steers with amphotericin B-induced transient synovitis-arthritis. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:14311438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Stock ML, Millman ST, Barth LA, et al. The effects of firocoxib on cautery disbudding pain and stress responses in preweaned dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 2015;98:60586069.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Heinrich A, Duffield TF, Lissemore KD, et al. The effect of meloxicam on behavior and pain sensitivity of dairy calves following cautery dehorning with a local anesthetic. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:24502457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. FDA. Freedom of information summary, NADA 113–232, Liquamycin LA-200. Available at: animaldrugsatfda.fda.gov/adafda/app/search/public/document/downloadFoi/1613. Accessed Dec 30, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Wildman EE, Jones GM, Wagner PE, et al. A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production characteristics. J Dairy Sci 1982;65:495501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Lenth RV. Java applets for power and sample size. Available at: www.stat.uiowa.edu/~rlenth/Power. Accessed Jul 30, 2013.

  • 17. Dintenfass L, Kammer S. Re-evaluation of heat precipitation method for plasma fibrinogen estimation: effect of abnormal proteins and plasma viscosity. J Clin Pathol 1976;29:130134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Jones ML, Allison RW. Evaluation of the ruminant complete blood cell count. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2007;23:377402.

  • 19. Weary DM, Niel L, Flower FC, et al. Identifying and preventing pain in animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006;100:6476.

  • 20. Underwood WJ. Pain and distress in agriculture animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:208211.

  • 21. Symonds LL, Gordon NS, Bixby JC, et al. Right-lateralized pain processing in the human cortex: an FMRI study. J Neurophysiol 2006;95:38233830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Slingsby LS, Jones A, Waterman-Pearson AE. Use of a new finger-mounted device to compare mechanical nociceptive thresholds in cats given pethidine or no medication after castration. Res Vet Sci 2001;70:243246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Pairis-Garcia MD, Johnson AK, Stalder KJ, et al. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using nociceptive threshold tests. Anim Welf 2014;23:219229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Hirvonen J, Pyörälä S, Jousimies-Somer H. Acute phase response in heifers with experimentally induced mastitis. J Dairy Res 1996;63:351360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Hirvonen J, Pyörälä S. Acute-phase response in dairy cows with surgically-treated abdominal disorders. Vet J 1998;155:5361.

  • 26. Faulkner DB, Eurell T, Tranquilli WJ, et al. Performance and health of weanling bulls after butorphanol and xylazine administration at castration. J Anim Sci 1992;70:29702974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline for use as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the efficacy of pain mitigation strategies in dairy cows

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 2 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows.

ANIMALS

15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows.

PROCEDURES

In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days.

RESULTS

For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows.

ANIMALS

15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows.

PROCEDURES

In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days.

RESULTS

For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.

Contributor Notes

Mrs. Ohlheiser's present address is Leachman Cattle of Colorado, Fort Collins, CO 80524.

Ms. Baier's present address is the Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53715.

Dr. Lear's present address is the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Dr. Byers' present address is the Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, St George's University, Grenada, West Indies.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ahola (jason.ahola@colostate.edu).