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Evaluation of a ventral and a left lateral approach to coelioscopy in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

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  • 1 1William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 2Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 3Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 4Department of Surgical and Radiological Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare a ventral and a left lateral endoscopic approach to coelioscopy in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

18 adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized crossover design involving 2 surgical approaches, anesthetized bearded dragons first underwent coelioscopy with a ventral approach (left lateral of midline next to the umbilicus; animal positioned in dorsal recumbency) or left lateral approach (intercostal; animal positioned in right lateral recumbency) and then with the alternate approach. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm, 30° oblique telescope with a 4.8-mm operating sheath and CO2 insufflation at 2 to 5 mm Hg were used. Ease of entry into the coelom and ease of visual examination of visceral structures were scored.

RESULTS

Both approaches were straightforward, with the left lateral approach requiring significantly more time than the ventral approach. Scores for ease of visual examination for the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, left kidney, gonads, and fat body were good to excellent. Visual examination of the spleen and adrenal glands was difficult in most animals via either approach. The left kidney, testis, and vas deferens were easier to see with the left lateral approach, whereas the pancreas in females and gallbladder in both sexes were easier to see with the ventral approach. All bearded dragons recovered without complications from the procedures, except for one with nephritis, renal gout, and hepatic necrosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both coelioscopy approaches could be safely and effectively used in bearded dragons. Choice of approach should be based on the coelomic structures requiring evaluation.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare a ventral and a left lateral endoscopic approach to coelioscopy in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

18 adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized crossover design involving 2 surgical approaches, anesthetized bearded dragons first underwent coelioscopy with a ventral approach (left lateral of midline next to the umbilicus; animal positioned in dorsal recumbency) or left lateral approach (intercostal; animal positioned in right lateral recumbency) and then with the alternate approach. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm, 30° oblique telescope with a 4.8-mm operating sheath and CO2 insufflation at 2 to 5 mm Hg were used. Ease of entry into the coelom and ease of visual examination of visceral structures were scored.

RESULTS

Both approaches were straightforward, with the left lateral approach requiring significantly more time than the ventral approach. Scores for ease of visual examination for the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, left kidney, gonads, and fat body were good to excellent. Visual examination of the spleen and adrenal glands was difficult in most animals via either approach. The left kidney, testis, and vas deferens were easier to see with the left lateral approach, whereas the pancreas in females and gallbladder in both sexes were easier to see with the ventral approach. All bearded dragons recovered without complications from the procedures, except for one with nephritis, renal gout, and hepatic necrosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both coelioscopy approaches could be safely and effectively used in bearded dragons. Choice of approach should be based on the coelomic structures requiring evaluation.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Frei's present address is Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman (guzman@ucdavis.edu).