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Effects of imidazoline and nonimidazoline α-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists, including xylazine, medetomidine, dexmedetomidine, yohimbine, and atipamezole, on aggregation of feline platelets

Takuya Matsukawa DVM1,2 and Yoshiaki Hikasa DVM, PhD2
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  • 1 1United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753–8515, Japan.
  • | 2 2Joint Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680–8553, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the effects of imidazoline and nonimidazoline α-adrenergic agents on aggregation of feline platelets.

SAMPLE

Blood samples from 12 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

In 7 experiments, the effects of 23 imidazoline and nonimidazoline α-adrenoceptor agonists or antagonists on aggregation and antiaggregation of feline platelets were determined via a turbidimetric method. Collagen and ADP were used to initiate aggregation.

RESULTS

Platelet aggregation was not induced by α-adrenoceptor agonists alone. Adrenaline and noradrenaline induced a dose-dependent potentiation of ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation. Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline also induced a small potentiation of ADP-stimulated aggregation, but other α-adrenoceptor agonists did not induce potentiation. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and certain imidazoline α-adrenergic agents including phentolamine, yohimbine, atipamezole, clonidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine inhibited adrenaline-potentiated aggregation induced by ADP or collagen in a dose-dependent manner. The imidazoline compound antazoline inhibited adrenaline-potentiated aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and nonimidazoline α-adrenergic agents including xylazine and prazosin were ineffective or less effective for inhibiting adrenaline-potentiated aggregation. Moxonidine also was ineffective for inhibiting adrenaline-potentiated aggregation induced by collagen. Medetomidine and xylazine did not reverse the inhibitory effect of atipamezole and yohimbine on adrenaline-potentiated aggregation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Adrenaline-potentiated aggregation of feline platelets may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, whereas imidazoline agents may inhibit in vitro platelet aggregation via imidazoline receptors. Imidazoline α-adrenergic agents may have clinical use for conditions in which there is platelet reactivity to adrenaline. Xylazine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine may be used clinically in cats with minimal concerns for adverse effects on platelet function.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the effects of imidazoline and nonimidazoline α-adrenergic agents on aggregation of feline platelets.

SAMPLE

Blood samples from 12 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

In 7 experiments, the effects of 23 imidazoline and nonimidazoline α-adrenoceptor agonists or antagonists on aggregation and antiaggregation of feline platelets were determined via a turbidimetric method. Collagen and ADP were used to initiate aggregation.

RESULTS

Platelet aggregation was not induced by α-adrenoceptor agonists alone. Adrenaline and noradrenaline induced a dose-dependent potentiation of ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation. Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline also induced a small potentiation of ADP-stimulated aggregation, but other α-adrenoceptor agonists did not induce potentiation. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and certain imidazoline α-adrenergic agents including phentolamine, yohimbine, atipamezole, clonidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine inhibited adrenaline-potentiated aggregation induced by ADP or collagen in a dose-dependent manner. The imidazoline compound antazoline inhibited adrenaline-potentiated aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and nonimidazoline α-adrenergic agents including xylazine and prazosin were ineffective or less effective for inhibiting adrenaline-potentiated aggregation. Moxonidine also was ineffective for inhibiting adrenaline-potentiated aggregation induced by collagen. Medetomidine and xylazine did not reverse the inhibitory effect of atipamezole and yohimbine on adrenaline-potentiated aggregation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Adrenaline-potentiated aggregation of feline platelets may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, whereas imidazoline agents may inhibit in vitro platelet aggregation via imidazoline receptors. Imidazoline α-adrenergic agents may have clinical use for conditions in which there is platelet reactivity to adrenaline. Xylazine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine may be used clinically in cats with minimal concerns for adverse effects on platelet function.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Hikasa (hikasa@tottori-u.ac.jp).