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Effects of treatment with lispro and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulins on serum fructosamine and postprandial blood glucose concentrations in dogs with clinically well-controlled diabetes mellitus and postprandial hyperglycemia

Abigail V. Bertalan VMD1, Kenneth J. Drobatz DVM, MSCE1, and Rebecka S. Hess DVM, MSCE1
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  • 1 1Department of Clinical Sciences & Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess effects of basal-bolus insulin treatment (BBIT) with lispro and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulins, compared with NPH insulin alone, on serum fructosamine concentration (SFC) and postprandial blood glucose concentration (BGC) in dogs with clinically well-controlled diabetes mellitus and postprandial hyperglycemia fed a high insoluble fiber–content diet.

ANIMALS

6 client-owned dogs with diabetes mellitus.

PROCEDURES

Blood samples were collected for BGC and SFC measurement in hospitalized dogs just before feeding and routine SC NPH insulin administration (time 0); samples were collected for BGC measurement every 30 minutes for 2 hours, then every 2 hours for up to 10 additional hours. Postprandial hyperglycemia was identified when BGC 30 minutes after insulin administration exceeded BGC at time 0 or the 1-hour time point. For BBIT, owners were instructed to continue NPH insulin administration at the usual dosage at home (q 12 h, with feeding) and to administer lispro insulin (0.1 U/Kg, SC) separately at the time of NPH injections. Two weeks later, SFC and BGC measurements were repeated; results at the start and end of the study were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Median SFC was significantly higher at the start (400 μmol/L) than at the end (390 μmol/L) of the study. Median 1-hour (313 mg/dL) and 1.5-hour (239 mg/dL) BGC measurements at the start of the study were significantly higher than those at the end of the study (117 and 94 mg/dL, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this sample of dogs with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, addition of lispro insulin to an existing treatment regimen of NPH insulin and dietary management significantly decreased postprandial BGCs. Further study of BBIT for dogs with diabetes mellitus is warranted.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess effects of basal-bolus insulin treatment (BBIT) with lispro and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulins, compared with NPH insulin alone, on serum fructosamine concentration (SFC) and postprandial blood glucose concentration (BGC) in dogs with clinically well-controlled diabetes mellitus and postprandial hyperglycemia fed a high insoluble fiber–content diet.

ANIMALS

6 client-owned dogs with diabetes mellitus.

PROCEDURES

Blood samples were collected for BGC and SFC measurement in hospitalized dogs just before feeding and routine SC NPH insulin administration (time 0); samples were collected for BGC measurement every 30 minutes for 2 hours, then every 2 hours for up to 10 additional hours. Postprandial hyperglycemia was identified when BGC 30 minutes after insulin administration exceeded BGC at time 0 or the 1-hour time point. For BBIT, owners were instructed to continue NPH insulin administration at the usual dosage at home (q 12 h, with feeding) and to administer lispro insulin (0.1 U/Kg, SC) separately at the time of NPH injections. Two weeks later, SFC and BGC measurements were repeated; results at the start and end of the study were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Median SFC was significantly higher at the start (400 μmol/L) than at the end (390 μmol/L) of the study. Median 1-hour (313 mg/dL) and 1.5-hour (239 mg/dL) BGC measurements at the start of the study were significantly higher than those at the end of the study (117 and 94 mg/dL, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this sample of dogs with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, addition of lispro insulin to an existing treatment regimen of NPH insulin and dietary management significantly decreased postprandial BGCs. Further study of BBIT for dogs with diabetes mellitus is warranted.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Bertalan's present address is Southeast Veterinary Oncology and Internal Medicine, 304 Corporate Way, Orange Park, FL 32073.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hess (rhess@vet.upenn.edu).