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Use of intestine-related biomarkers for detecting intestinal epithelial damage in neonatal calves with diarrhea

Mahmut Ok DVM, PhD1, Ramazan Yildiz DVM, PhD5, Fatih Hatipoglu DVM, PhD2, Nuri Baspinar DVM, PhD3, Merve Ider DVM, PhD1, Kamil Üney DVM, PhD4, Alper Ertürk DVM, PhD6, Murat K. Durgut DVM, PhD1, and Funda Terzi DVM, PhD7
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  • 1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selçuk, Konya, 42031 Turkey.
  • | 2 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selçuk, Konya, 42031 Turkey.
  • | 3 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selçuk, Konya, 42031 Turkey.
  • | 4 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selçuk, Konya, 42031 Turkey.
  • | 5 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Burdur, 15030 Turkey.
  • | 6 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, 31000 Turkey.
  • | 7 7Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kastamonu, Kastamonu, 37200 Turkey.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the usefulness of intestinal biomarkers in determining the presence of intestinal epithelial damage in neonatal calves with diarrhea caused by 4 etiologic agents.

ANIMALS

40 neonatal calves that were healthy (n = 10) or had diarrhea (30).

PROCEDURES

The study was a cross-sectional study. Results of hematologic analyses and serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (I-FABP), liver fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP), trefoil factor 3 (TFF-3), Claudin-3 (CLDN-3), γ-enteric smooth muscle actin (ACTG2), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and leptin (LP) were compared among calves grouped according to whether they were healthy (control group; G-1) or had diarrhea caused by K99 Escherichia coli (G-2; n = 10), bovine rota- or coronavirus (G-3; 5 each), or Cryptosporidium spp (G-4; 10).

RESULTS

Across the 3 time points at which blood samples were obtained and evaluated, the groups of calves with diarrhea generally had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, and LP, compared with the control group. In addition, G-2 also consistently had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of I-FAB and ACTG2 and lower mean serum concentrations of CLDN-3, compared with the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that degree of intestinal epithelial damage differed among calves grouped by the etiologic agent of diarrhea and that such damage might have been more severe in calves with diarrhea caused by K99 E coli. Additionally, our results indicated that serum concentrations of I-FABP, L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, ACTG2, LP, and CLDN-3 were useful biomarkers of intestinal epithelial damage in calves of the present study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the usefulness of intestinal biomarkers in determining the presence of intestinal epithelial damage in neonatal calves with diarrhea caused by 4 etiologic agents.

ANIMALS

40 neonatal calves that were healthy (n = 10) or had diarrhea (30).

PROCEDURES

The study was a cross-sectional study. Results of hematologic analyses and serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (I-FABP), liver fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP), trefoil factor 3 (TFF-3), Claudin-3 (CLDN-3), γ-enteric smooth muscle actin (ACTG2), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and leptin (LP) were compared among calves grouped according to whether they were healthy (control group; G-1) or had diarrhea caused by K99 Escherichia coli (G-2; n = 10), bovine rota- or coronavirus (G-3; 5 each), or Cryptosporidium spp (G-4; 10).

RESULTS

Across the 3 time points at which blood samples were obtained and evaluated, the groups of calves with diarrhea generally had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, and LP, compared with the control group. In addition, G-2 also consistently had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of I-FAB and ACTG2 and lower mean serum concentrations of CLDN-3, compared with the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that degree of intestinal epithelial damage differed among calves grouped by the etiologic agent of diarrhea and that such damage might have been more severe in calves with diarrhea caused by K99 E coli. Additionally, our results indicated that serum concentrations of I-FABP, L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, ACTG2, LP, and CLDN-3 were useful biomarkers of intestinal epithelial damage in calves of the present study.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Ok (mok@selcuk.edu.tr).