• 1. McLaughlin RM. Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001;31:193201.

  • 2. Waxman AS, Robinson DA, Evans RB, et al. Relationship between objective and subjective assessment of limb function in normal dogs with an experimentally induced lameness. Vet Surg 2008;37:241246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Quinn MM, Keuler NS, Lu Y, et al. Evaluation of agreement between numerical rating scales, visual analogue scoring scales, and force plate gait analysis in dogs. Vet Surg 2007;36:360367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Bockstahler BA, Skalicky M, Peham C, et al. Reliability of ground reaction forces measured on a treadmill system in healthy dogs. Vet J 2007;173:373378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Budsberg SC, Rytz U, Johnston SA. Effects of acceleration on ground reaction forces collected in healthy dogs at a trot. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1998;11:1519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Meyer C, Killeen T, Easthope CS, et al. Familiarization with treadmill walking: how much is enough? Sci Rep 2019;9:5232.

  • 7. Hobbs SJ, Clayton HM. Sagittal plane ground reaction forces, centre of pressure and centre of mass in trotting horses. Vet J 2013;198:e14e19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Lloyd R, Cooke C. Biomechanical differences associated with two different load carriage systems and their relationship to economy. Human Mov 2011;12:6574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. von Porat A, Henriksson M, Holmström E, et al. Knee kinematics and kinetics in former soccer players with a 16-year-old ACL injury—the effects of twelve weeks of knee-specific training. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2007;8:35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Stejskal M, Torres BT, Sandberg GS, et al. Variability of vertical ground reaction forces collected with one and two force plates in healthy dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2015;28:318322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Torres BT, Moëns NMM, Al-Nadaf S, et al. Comparison of overground and treadmill-based gaits of dogs. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:535541.

  • 12. Zeni JA Jr, Richards JG, Higginson JS. Two simple methods for determining gait events during treadmill and overground walking using kinematic data. Gait Posture 2008;27:710714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Evans R, Gordon W, Conzemius M. Effect of velocity on ground reaction forces in dogs with lameness attributable to tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament. Am J Vet Res 2003;64:14791481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Horstmann GA, Huethe F, Dietz V. Special treadmill for the investigation of standing and walking in research and in clinical medicine [in German]. Biomed Tech (Berl) 1987;32:250254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Kram R, Powell AJ. A treadmill-mounted force platform. J Appl Physiol 1989;67:16921698.

  • 16. Firminger CR, Vernillo G, Savoldelli A, et al. Joint kinematics and ground reaction forces in overground versus treadmill graded running. Gait Posture 2018;63:109113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Giakas G, Baltzopoulos V. Time and frequency domain analysis of ground reaction forces during walking: an investigation of variability and symmetry. Gait Posture 1997;5:189197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Reed LF, Urry SR, Wearing SC. Reliability of spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters determined by a new instrumented treadmill system. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2013;14:249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Wearing SC, Reed LF, Urry SR. Agreement between temporal and spatial gait parameters from an instrumented walkway and treadmill system at matched walking speed. Gait Posture 2013;38:380384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Brebner NS, Moëns NMM, Runciman JR. Evaluation of a treadmill with integrated force plates for kinetic gait analysis of sound and lame dogs at a trot. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2006;19:205212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Assaf ND, Rahal SC, Mesquita LR, et al. Evaluation of parameters obtained from two systems of gait analysis. Aust Vet J 2019;97:414417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. CanidGait. Stance and gait analysis for dogs. Measuring system for diagnostics, therapy and rehabilitation. Available at: www.zebris.de/en/medical/products-solutions/canidgait-for-dogs/. Accessed Jul 2, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research (Erratum published in J Chiropr Med 2017;16:346). J Chiropr Med 2016;15:155163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Piazza AM, Binversie EE, Baker LA, et al. Variance associated with walking velocity during force platform gait analysis of a heterogeneous sample of clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 2017;78:500507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. McSweeney SC, Reed LF, Wearing SC. Reliability and minimum detectable change of measures of gait in children during walking and running on an instrumented treadmill. Gait Posture 2020;75:105108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Al-Amri M, Al Balushi H, Mashabi A. Intra-rater repeatability of gait parameters in healthy adults during self-paced treadmill-based virtual reality walking. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2017;20:16691677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Girard O, Brocherie F, Morin J, et al. Intrasession and intersession reliability of running mechanics during treadmill sprints. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2016;11:432439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Donath L, Faude O, Lichtenstein E, et al. Validity and reliability of a portable gait analysis system for measuring spatiotemporal gait characteristics: comparison to an instrumented treadmill. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2016;13:6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Riley PO, Dicharry J, Franz J, et al. A kinematics and kinetic comparison of overground and treadmill running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:10931100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Lee SJ, Hidler J. Biomechanics of overground vs. treadmill walking in healthy individuals. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:747755.

  • 31. Shi L, Duan F, Yang Y, et al. The effect of treadmill walking on gait and upper trunk through linear and nonlinear analysis methods. Sensors (Basel) 2019;19:2204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of the repeatability of kinetic and temporospatial gait variables measured with a pressure-sensitive treadmill for dogs

View More View Less
  • 1 1Zentrum für Tierphysiotherapie, Lambertweg 36, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany.
  • | 2 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, England.
  • | 3 3Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, England.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate intrasession and intersession repeatability of measurements for temporospatial and kinetic variables obtained with a pressure-sensitive treadmill designed for gait analysis of dogs.

ANIMALS

16 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

The influence of treadmill speed on accuracy of ground reaction force (GRF) measurements was assessed by simulated gait analysis at 0 to 7.5 km/h with a custom test device. A similar test was performed with 1 client-owned dog ambulating on the treadmill at 5 speeds (3 to 7 km/h) for GRF calculations. Fifteen client-owned dogs were then walked on the treadmill at 3 km/h for collection of temporospatial and kinetic data. Intrasession repeatability was determined by comparing 2 sets of measurements obtained ≤ 2 hours apart. Intersession repeatability was determined by comparing the first set of these measurements with those for a second session ≥ 4 days later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; consistency test) and difference ratios were calculated to assess repeatability.

RESULTS

Increases in treadmill speed yielded a mean 9.1% decrease in weight-normalized force data at belt speeds of up to 7.5 km/h for the test device, compared with the value when the treadmill belt was stationary. Results were similar for the dog at increasing treadmill speeds (mean decrease, 12.4%). For temporospatial data, intrasession ICCs were > 0.9 and intersession ICCs ranged from 0.75 to 0.9; for GRFs, intrasession and intersession ICCs ranged from 0.68 to 0.97 and from 0.35 to 0.78, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Repeatability of temporospatial data for healthy dogs was good to excellent; results for kinetic data varied. Further research is needed to investigate use of this system for gait analysis with larger samples of dogs and dogs with lameness.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Prof. Allen (mja1000@cam.ac.uk).