• 1. Bali MS, Lang J, Jaggy A, et al. Comparative study of vertebral fractures and luxations in dogs and cats. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2009;22:4753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Weh JM, Kraus KH. Vertebral fractures, luxations, and subluxations. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2018;529548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Bruecker KA. Principles of vertebral fracture management. Semin Vet Med Surg Small Anim 1996;11:259272.

  • 4. Garcia JN, Milthorpe BK, Russel D, et al. Biomechanical study of canine spinal fracture fixation using pins or bone screws with polymethylmethacrylate. Vet Surg 1994;23:322329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Krauss MW, Theyse LFH, Tryfonidou MA, et al. Treatment of spinal fractures using Lubra plates: a retrospective clinical and radiological evaluation of 15 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2012;25:326331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Hall DA, Snelling SR, Ackland DC, et al. Bending strength and stiffness of canine cadaver spines after fixation of a lumbar spinal fracture-luxation using a novel unilateral stabilization technique compared to traditional dorsal stabilization. Vet Surg 2015;44:94102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Graillon T, Rakotozanany P, Blondel B, et al. Circumferential management of unstable thoracolumbar fractures using an anterior expandable cage, as an alternative to an iliac crest graft, combined with a posterior screw fixation: results of a series of 85 patients. Neurosurg Focus 2014;37:E10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Richardson B, Paulzak A, Rusyniak WG, et al. Anterior lumbar corpectomy with expandable titanium cage reconstruction: a case series of 42 patients. World Neurosurg 2017;108:317324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. De Decker S, Caemaert J, Tshamala MC, et al. Surgical treatment of disk-associated wobbler syndrome by a distractable vertebral titanium cage in seven dogs. Vet Surg 2011;40:544554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Sturges BK, Kapatkin AS, Garcia TC, et al. Biomechanical comparison of locking compression plate versus positive profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate for stabilization of the canine lumbar vertebrae. Vet Surg 2016;45:309318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Waldron DR, Shires PK, McCain W, et al. The rotational stabilizing effect of spinal fixation techniques in an unstable vertebral model. Prog Vet Neurol 1991;2:105110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Sharp NJ, Wheeler SJ. Trauma. In: Small animal spinal disorders. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Mosby, 2004;281318.

  • 13. Van de Belt H, Neut D, Schenk W, et al. Infection of orthopedic implants and the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cements: a review. Acta Orthop Scand 2001;72:557571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Roush JK, Wilson JW. Effects of plate luting on cortical vascularity and development of cortical porosity in canine femurs. Vet Surg 1990;19:208214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Jeffery ND. Vertebral fracture and luxation in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2010;40:809828.

  • 16. Wheeler JL, Lewis DD, Cross AR, et al. Closed fluoroscopic-assisted spinal arch external skeletal fixation for the stabilization of vertebral column injuries in five dogs. Vet Surg 2007;36:442448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Walker TM, Pierce WA, Welch RD. External fixation of the lumbar spine in a canine model. Vet Surg 2002;31:181188.

  • 18. Lanz OI, Jones JC, Bergman R. Use of an external fixator to correct spinal fracture/luxation and instability in three dogs. Vet Neurol Neurosurg 2000;2:114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Wheeler JL, Cross AR, Rapoff AJ. A comparison of the accuracy and safety of vertebral body pin placement using a fluoroscopically guided versus an open surgical approach: an in vitro study. Vet Surg 2002;31:468474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Schöllhorn B, Bürki A, Stahl C, et al. Comparison of the biomechanical properties of a ventral cervical intervertebral anchored fusion device with locking plate fixation applied to cadaveric canine cervical spines. Vet Surg 2013;42:825831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Rohner D, Kowaleski MP, Schwarz G, et al. Short-term clinical and radiographical outcome after application of anchored intervertebral spacers in dogs with disc-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019;32:158164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Steffen F, Voss K, Morgan JP. Distraction-fusion for caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy using an intervertebral cage and locking plates in 14 dogs. Vet Surg 2011;40:743752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Bergman RL, Levine JM, Coates JR, et al. Cervical spinal locking plate in combination with cortical ring allograft for a one level fusion in dogs with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Vet Surg 2008;37:530536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Hettlich BF, Allen MJ, Pascetta D, et al. Biomechanical comparison between bicortical pin and monocortical screw/polymethylmethacrylate constructs in the cadaveric canine cervical vertebral column. Vet Surg 2013;42:693700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Gédet P, Thistlethwaite PA, Ferguson SJ. Minimizing errors during in vitro testing of multisegmental spine specimens: considerations for component selection and kinematic measurement. J Biomech 2007;40:18811885.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Wilke HJ, Wenger K, Claes L. Testing criteria for spinal implants: recommendations for the standardization of in vitro stability testing of spinal implants. Eur Spine J 1998;7:148154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Bruce CW, Brisson BA, Gyselinck K. Spinal fracture and luxation in dogs and cats: a retrospective evaluation of 95 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008;21:280284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Smith GK, Walter MC. Spinal decompressive procedures and dorsal compartment injuries: comparative biomechanical study in canine cadavers. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:266273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Smit TH. The use of a quadruped as an in vivo model for the study of the spine – biomechanical considerations. Eur Spine J 2002;11:137144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Hongo M, Gay RE, Hsu J, et al. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on intervertebral dynamic motion characteristics in the porcine lumbar spine. J Biomech 2008;41:916920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Dhillon N, Bass EC, Lotz JC. Effect of frozen storage on the creep behavior of human intervertebral discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001;26:883888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Knell SC, Bürki A, Hurter K, et al. Biomechanical comparison after in vitro laminar vertebral stabilization and vertebral body plating of the first and second lumbar vertebrae in specimens obtained from canine cadavers. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:16811686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of the biomechanical performance of a customized unilateral locking compression plate with and without an intervertebral spacer applied to the first and second lumbar vertebrae after intervertebral diskectomy in canine cadaveric specimens

View More View Less
  • 1 1Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3014 Bern, Switzerland.
  • | 2 2Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, 3014 Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device combined with (vs without) an intervertebral spacer would increase the stability of the L1-L2 motion segment following complete intervertebral diskectomy in canine cadaveric specimens.

SAMPLE

Vertebral columns from T13 through L3 harvested from 16 skeletally mature Beagles without thoracolumbar disease.

PROCEDURES

Complete diskectomy of the L1-2 disk was performed in each specimen. Unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment was performed with the first of 2 implants: a unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device that consisted of a locking compression plate with or without an intervertebral spacer. The resulting construct was biomechanically tested; then, the first implant was removed, and the second implant was applied to the contralateral side and tested. Range of motion in flexion and extension, lateral bending, and torsion was compared among intact specimens (prior to diskectomy) and constructs.

RESULTS

Compared with intact specimens, constructs stabilized with either implant were as stable in flexion and extension, significantly more stable in lateral bending, and significantly less stable in axial rotation. Constructs stabilized with the fusion device plus intervertebral spacer were significantly stiffer in lateral bending than those stabilized with the fusion device alone. No significant differences in flexion and extension and rotation were noted between implants.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings did not support the use of this customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device with an intervertebral spacer to improve unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment after complete L1-2 diskectomy in dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device combined with (vs without) an intervertebral spacer would increase the stability of the L1-L2 motion segment following complete intervertebral diskectomy in canine cadaveric specimens.

SAMPLE

Vertebral columns from T13 through L3 harvested from 16 skeletally mature Beagles without thoracolumbar disease.

PROCEDURES

Complete diskectomy of the L1-2 disk was performed in each specimen. Unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment was performed with the first of 2 implants: a unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device that consisted of a locking compression plate with or without an intervertebral spacer. The resulting construct was biomechanically tested; then, the first implant was removed, and the second implant was applied to the contralateral side and tested. Range of motion in flexion and extension, lateral bending, and torsion was compared among intact specimens (prior to diskectomy) and constructs.

RESULTS

Compared with intact specimens, constructs stabilized with either implant were as stable in flexion and extension, significantly more stable in lateral bending, and significantly less stable in axial rotation. Constructs stabilized with the fusion device plus intervertebral spacer were significantly stiffer in lateral bending than those stabilized with the fusion device alone. No significant differences in flexion and extension and rotation were noted between implants.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings did not support the use of this customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device with an intervertebral spacer to improve unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment after complete L1-2 diskectomy in dogs.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 126 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Forterre (franck.forterre@vetsuisse.unibe.ch).