• 1. Pathan H, Williams J. Basic opioid pharmacology: an update. Br J Pain 2012;6:1116.

  • 2. Reiner A, Brauth SE, Kitt CA, et al. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptor types in the forebrain and mid-brain of pigeons. J Comp Neurol 1989;280:359382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Csillag A, Bourne RC, Stewart MG. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): an in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study. J Comp Neurol 1990;302:543551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Khurshid N, Agarwal V, Iyengar S. Expression of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in song control regions of adult male zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata). J Chem Neuroanat 2009;37:158169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Quigley C, Wiffen P. A systematic review of hydromorphone in acute and chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25:169178.

  • 6. Reidenberg MM, Goodman H, Erle H, et al. Hydromorphone levels and pain control in patients with severe chronic pain. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988;44:376382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Plumb D. Hydromorphone. In: Plumb D, ed. Veterinary drug handbook. 7th ed. Stockholm, Wisc: PharmaVet Inc, 2011;509511.

  • 8. Pettifer G, Dyson D. Hydromorphone: a cost-effective alternative to the use of oxymorphone. Can Vet J 2000;41:135137.

  • 9. Smith LJ, Yu JK, Bjorling DE, et al. Effects of hydromorphone or oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, on preanesthetic sedation, physiologic values, and histamine release in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:11011105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Wegner K, Robertson SA, Kollias-Baker C, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of intravenous hydromorphone in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2004;27:329336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Houck EL, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Beaufrère H, et al. Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:820827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Douglas J, Beaufrère H, et al. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Am J Vet Res 2020;81:775782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Flammer K, Paul-Murphy JR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). J Avian Med Surg 2011;25:185191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Keller DL, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Klauer JM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2011;72:741745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Pascoe PJ, Pypendop BH, Pavez Phillips JC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl after intravenous administration in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:606613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Souza MJ, Gerhardt L, Cox S. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2013;74:957962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Souza MJ, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Paul-Murphy JR, et al. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Am J Vet Res 2012;73:11421147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Houck EL, Knych HKD, et al. Evaluation of the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:12391245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Paul-Murphy J, Hess JC, Fialkowski JP. Pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular dose of buprenorphine in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). J Avian Med Surg 2004;18:224228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Kelly KR, Pypendop BH, Christe KL. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2014;53:512516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Yamaoka K, Nakagawa T, Uno T. Application of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) in the evaluation of linear pharmacokinetic equations. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1978;6:165175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Guedes AG, Papich MG, Rude EP, et al. Pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of intravenous hydromorphone in conscious dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008;31:334343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, KuKanich B, Drazenovich TL, et al. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Am J Vet Res 2014;75:527531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. KuKanich B, Hogan BK, Krugner-Higby LA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008;35:256264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Drazenovich TL, Olsen GH, et al. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of hydromorphone hydrochlo-ride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Am J Vet Res 2013;74:817822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Coda B, Tanaka A, Jacobson RC, et al. Hydromorphone analgesia after intravenous bolus administration. Pain 1997;71:4148.

  • 27. Bailey PL, Egan TD, Stanley TH. Intravenous opioid anesthetics. In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000;273376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Zheng M, McErlane KM, Ong MC. Hydromorphone metabolites: isolation and identification from pooled urine samples of a cancer patient. Xenobiotica 2002;32:427439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Zheng M, McErlane KM, Ong MC. LC-MS-MS analysis of hydromorphone and hydromorphone metabolites with application to a pharmacokinetic study in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. Xenobiotica 2002;32:141151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Molecular basis for deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation in cats. An interspecies comparison of enzyme kinetics in liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1997;53:10411047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intramuscular and intravenous administration of a single dose to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica)

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 2K. L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

ANIMALS

8 orange-winged Amazon parrots (4 males and 4 females).

PROCEDURES

Hydromorphone (1 mg/kg) was administered once IM. Blood samples were collected 5 minutes and 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, and 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a compartmental model. The experiment was repeated 1 month later with the same dose of hydromorphone administered IV.

RESULTS

Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 6 hours in 8 of 8 and 6 of 7 parrots after IM and IV injection, respectively. After IM administration, mean bioavailability was 97.6%, and mean maximum plasma concentration was 179.1 ng/mL 17 minutes after injection. Mean volume of distribution and plasma drug clearance were 4.24 L/kg and 64.2 mL/min/kg, respectively, after IV administration. Mean elimination half-lives were 1.74 and 1.45 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with rapid plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution after IV administration in orange-winged Amazon parrots. Drug elimination half-lives were short. Further pharmacokinetic studies of hydromorphone and its metabolites, including investigation of multiple doses, different routes of administration, and sustained-release formulations, are recommended.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Douglas’ present address is the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman (guzman@ucdavis.edu).