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Accuracy of tidal volume delivery by five different models of large-animal ventilators

Dario Floriano DVM1, Klaus Hopster DVM, PhD1, and Bernd Driessen DVM, PhD1
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies-New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the accuracy of tidal volume (VT) delivery among 5 different models of large-animal ventilators when tested at various settings for VT delivery, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rate, and fresh gas flow (FGF) rate.

SAMPLE

4 different models of pneumatically powered ventilators and 1 electrically powered piston-driven ventilator.

PROCEDURES

After a leak flow check, each ventilator was tested 10 times for each experimental setting combination of 5 levels of preset VT, 3 PIF rates, and 4 FGF rates. A thermal mass flow and volume meter was used as the gold-standard method to measure delivered VT. In addition, circuit systems of rubber versus polyvinyl chloride breathing hoses were evaluated with the piston-driven ventilator. Differences between preset and delivered VT (volume error [δVT]) were calculated as a percentage of preset VT, and ANOVA was used to compare results across devices. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses and the coefficient of determination (r) were used to assess potential associations between the δVT and the preset VT, PIF rate, and FGF rate.

RESULTS

For each combination of experimental settings, ventilators had δVT values that ranged from 1.2% to 22.2%. Mean ± SD δVT was 4.8 ± 2.5% for the piston-driven ventilator, compared with 6.6 ± 3.2%, 10.6 ± 2.9%, 13.8 ± 2.97%, and 15.2 ± 2.6% for the 4 pneumatic ventilators. The δVT increased with higher PIF rates (r = 0.69), decreased with higher FGF rates (r = 0.62), and decreased with higher preset VT (r = 0.58).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that the tested ventilators all had δVT but that the extent of each of δVT varied among ventilators. Close monitoring of delivered VT with external flow and volume meters is warranted, particularly when pneumatic ventilators are used or when very precise VT delivery is required.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the accuracy of tidal volume (VT) delivery among 5 different models of large-animal ventilators when tested at various settings for VT delivery, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rate, and fresh gas flow (FGF) rate.

SAMPLE

4 different models of pneumatically powered ventilators and 1 electrically powered piston-driven ventilator.

PROCEDURES

After a leak flow check, each ventilator was tested 10 times for each experimental setting combination of 5 levels of preset VT, 3 PIF rates, and 4 FGF rates. A thermal mass flow and volume meter was used as the gold-standard method to measure delivered VT. In addition, circuit systems of rubber versus polyvinyl chloride breathing hoses were evaluated with the piston-driven ventilator. Differences between preset and delivered VT (volume error [δVT]) were calculated as a percentage of preset VT, and ANOVA was used to compare results across devices. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses and the coefficient of determination (r) were used to assess potential associations between the δVT and the preset VT, PIF rate, and FGF rate.

RESULTS

For each combination of experimental settings, ventilators had δVT values that ranged from 1.2% to 22.2%. Mean ± SD δVT was 4.8 ± 2.5% for the piston-driven ventilator, compared with 6.6 ± 3.2%, 10.6 ± 2.9%, 13.8 ± 2.97%, and 15.2 ± 2.6% for the 4 pneumatic ventilators. The δVT increased with higher PIF rates (r = 0.69), decreased with higher FGF rates (r = 0.62), and decreased with higher preset VT (r = 0.58).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that the tested ventilators all had δVT but that the extent of each of δVT varied among ventilators. Close monitoring of delivered VT with external flow and volume meters is warranted, particularly when pneumatic ventilators are used or when very precise VT delivery is required.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Floriano and Hopster contributed equally to this manuscript.

Address correspondence to Dr. Driessen (driessen@upenn.edu).