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Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs

Melissa A. Murdock BVM&S1, Carolina H. Riccó Pereira DVM, MS1, Turi K. Aarnes DVM, MS1, Jeannette Cremer DVM, Dr Med Vet2, Phillip Lerche BVSc, PhD1, and Richard M. Bednarski DVM, MS1
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  • 1 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210.
  • | 2 2Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds.

PROCEDURES

Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments.

RESULTS

All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds.

PROCEDURES

Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments.

RESULTS

All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Appendix 1 (PDF 141 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Riccó Pereira (riccopereira.1@osu.edu).