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Comparison of the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine combinations administered as constant rate infusions on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs

Che-Wei Chuang DVM1, Kuan-Sheng Chen DVM, PhD1,2, Wei-Ming Lee DVM, PhD1,2, and Hsien-Chi Wang DVM, PhD1,2
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  • 1 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 40227, Taiwan.
  • | 2 2Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City 40227, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) combinations administered as constant rate infusions (CRIs) during and after veterinary procedures on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs.

ANIMALS

32 clinically normal client-owned dogs undergoing nonemergent procedures.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an MLK or FLK combination (16 dogs/group). During the procedure, each dog received 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg/h; both groups), ketamine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg/h; both groups), and morphine (0.36 mg/kg/h; MLK group) or fentanyl (4 μg/kg/h; FLK group) via CRI for analgesia; esophageal temperature was maintained at 37° to 39°C. At extubation, each drug dose in each assigned combination was halved and administered (via CRI) for 12 additional hours for postprocedure analgesia. Rectal temperature and other data were recorded at baseline (prior to administration of premedicants), extubation (0 hours), and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours thereafter.

RESULTS

Mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at each postextubation time point for the MLK group, compared with corresponding values for the FLK group. Compared with the baseline value, mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours for the FLK group and at all postprocedure time points for the MLK group. Hypothermia (rectal temperature < 37°C) was detected at ≥ 1 postprocedure time point more often in dogs in the MLK group (9/16) than in the FLK group (1/16).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs that received an MLK combination for analgesia during and after a veterinary procedure developed hypothermia more commonly than did dogs that received an FLK combination under similar conditions.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) combinations administered as constant rate infusions (CRIs) during and after veterinary procedures on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs.

ANIMALS

32 clinically normal client-owned dogs undergoing nonemergent procedures.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an MLK or FLK combination (16 dogs/group). During the procedure, each dog received 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg/h; both groups), ketamine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg/h; both groups), and morphine (0.36 mg/kg/h; MLK group) or fentanyl (4 μg/kg/h; FLK group) via CRI for analgesia; esophageal temperature was maintained at 37° to 39°C. At extubation, each drug dose in each assigned combination was halved and administered (via CRI) for 12 additional hours for postprocedure analgesia. Rectal temperature and other data were recorded at baseline (prior to administration of premedicants), extubation (0 hours), and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours thereafter.

RESULTS

Mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at each postextubation time point for the MLK group, compared with corresponding values for the FLK group. Compared with the baseline value, mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours for the FLK group and at all postprocedure time points for the MLK group. Hypothermia (rectal temperature < 37°C) was detected at ≥ 1 postprocedure time point more often in dogs in the MLK group (9/16) than in the FLK group (1/16).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs that received an MLK combination for analgesia during and after a veterinary procedure developed hypothermia more commonly than did dogs that received an FLK combination under similar conditions.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Chuang's present address is Loving Kindness Animal Hospital, No. 539, Section 2, Guoguang Rd, Dali District, Taichung City 41266, Taiwan.

Address correspondence to Dr. Wang (hcwang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw).