• 1. Wyn-Jones G. Diagnosis of the causes of lameness. In: Wyn-Jones G, ed. Equine lameness. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1988;120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Furst AE. Diagnostic anesthesia. In: Auer J, Stick J, eds. Equine surgery. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2012;9981015.

  • 3. Barr A. Musculoskeletal diseases. In: Taylor FGR, Hillyer MH, eds. Diagnostic techniques in equine medicine. London: WB Saunders Co, 1997;231270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Bassage LH II, Ross MW. Diagnostic analgesia. In: Ross MW, Dyson S, eds. Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2011;100135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Wright I, Dyson S, Kannegieter N, et al. The locomotor system. In: Higgins A, Wright I, eds. The equine manual. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1995;797919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Baxter G, Stashak T. Perineural and intrasynovial anesthesia. In: Baxter G, ed. Adams and Stashak's lameness in horses. 6th ed. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011;173202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Wheat JD, Jones K. Selected techniques of regional anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1981;3:223246.

  • 8. Keegan KG, Yonezawa Y, Pai P, et al. Evaluation of a sensor-based system of motion analysis for detection and quantification of forelimb and hind limb lameness in horses. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:665670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Keegan KG, MacAllister CG, Wilson DA, et al. Comparison of an inertial sensor system with a stationary force plate for evaluation of horses with bilateral forelimb lameness. Am J Vet Res 2012;73:368374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Littell RC, Henry PR, Ammerman CB. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J Anim Sci 1998;76:12161231.

  • 11. Littell RC, Pendergast J, Natarajan R. Modelling covariance structure in the analysis of repeated measures data. Stat Med 2000;19:17931819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, et al. SAS for mixed models. 2nd ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc, 2006.

  • 13. Datta S, Kodali BS, Segal S. Local anesthetic pharmacology. In: Datta S, Kodali BS, Segal S, eds. Obstetrical anesthesia handbook. 5th ed. New York: Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2010;1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Berde C, Strichartz G. Local anesthetics. In: Miller's anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2009;913940.

  • 15. Strichartz GR, Sanchez V, Arthur GR, et al. Fundamental properties of local anesthetics. 11. Measured octanol:buffer partition coefficients and pK values of clinically used drugs. Anesth Analg 1990;71:158170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bedforth N, Hardman J. Drug toxicity and selection. In: McLeod G, McCartney C, Wildsmith J, eds. Principals and practice of regional anaesthesia. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2013;6877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effect of 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar regional nerve blocks in lame horses

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849
  • | 2 2Department of Agriculture, Ogden College of Science and Engineering, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101
  • | 3 3Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital, 2150 Georgetown Rd, Lexington, KY 40511

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess onset of analgesia for 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar nerve blocks in lame horses.

ANIMALS

6 naturally lame horses.

PROCEDURES

A crossover experiment was conducted. Horses were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (3% chloroprocaine or 2% mepivacaine first). Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed in the lame limb with the assigned treatment. Lameness was objectively evaluated before treatment administration and at various points for 120 minutes after treatment with a wireless inertial sensor-based motion analysis system. Following a 7-day washout period, horses then received the other treatment and lameness evaluations were repeated.

RESULTS

Median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with 3% chloroprocaine resulted in more consistent, rapid, and profound amelioration of lameness than did blocks performed with 2% mepivacaine. Lameness decreased more between 20 and 40 minutes after injection when 3% chloroprocaine was used than when 2% mepivacaine was used. Complete resolution of lameness was detected a mean of 9 minutes after injection when median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed with 3% chloroprocaine and a mean of 28 minutes after injection when performed with 2% mepivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3% chloroprocaine had a more rapid onset and provided better analgesia for median and ulnar nerve blocks in horses with naturally occurring lameness, compared with 2% mepivacaine. These favorable properties suggest that 3% chloroprocaine would be useful for performance of median and ulnar regional nerve blocks during complicated lameness evaluations.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess onset of analgesia for 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar nerve blocks in lame horses.

ANIMALS

6 naturally lame horses.

PROCEDURES

A crossover experiment was conducted. Horses were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (3% chloroprocaine or 2% mepivacaine first). Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed in the lame limb with the assigned treatment. Lameness was objectively evaluated before treatment administration and at various points for 120 minutes after treatment with a wireless inertial sensor-based motion analysis system. Following a 7-day washout period, horses then received the other treatment and lameness evaluations were repeated.

RESULTS

Median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with 3% chloroprocaine resulted in more consistent, rapid, and profound amelioration of lameness than did blocks performed with 2% mepivacaine. Lameness decreased more between 20 and 40 minutes after injection when 3% chloroprocaine was used than when 2% mepivacaine was used. Complete resolution of lameness was detected a mean of 9 minutes after injection when median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed with 3% chloroprocaine and a mean of 28 minutes after injection when performed with 2% mepivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3% chloroprocaine had a more rapid onset and provided better analgesia for median and ulnar nerve blocks in horses with naturally occurring lameness, compared with 2% mepivacaine. These favorable properties suggest that 3% chloroprocaine would be useful for performance of median and ulnar regional nerve blocks during complicated lameness evaluations.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Boone (lhb0021@auburn.edu).