• 1. USDA. National economic cost of equine lameness, colic, and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the United States. Information sheet. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA APHIS Veterinary Services National Health Monitoring System, 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Daunt DA, Steffey EP. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists as analgesics in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2002;18:3946.

  • 3. Hubbell JAE, Muir WW. Antagonism of detomidine sedation in the horse using intravenous tolazoline or atipamezole. Equine Vet J 2006;38:238241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Kamerling SG, Cravens WMT, Bagwell CA. Objective assessment of detomidine-induced analgesia and sedation in the horse. Eur J Pharmacol 1988;151:18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Clutton RE. Opioid analgesia in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2010;26:493514.

  • 6. Pilsworth R, Dyson S. Where does it hurt? Problems with interpretation of regional and intra-synovial diagnostic analgesia. Equine Vet Educ 2015;27:595603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Drevemo S, Johnston C, Roepstorff L, et al. Nerve block and intra-articular anaesthesia of the forelimb in the sound horse. Equine Vet J Suppl 1999;31(30):266269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Arkell M, Archer RM, Guitian FJ, et al. Evidence of bias effecting the interpretation of the results of local anaesthetic nerve blocks when assessing lameness in horses. Vet Rec 2006;159:346349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. da Silva Azevedo M, De La Corte FD, Brass KE, et al. The use of xylazine or acepromazine does not interfere in the lameness evaluation by inertial sensors. J Equine Vet Sci 2015;35:2730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. López-Sanromán FJ, Cisneros DG, del Arco MV, et al. The use of low doses of acepromazine as an aid for lameness diagnosis in horses: an accelerometric evaluation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2015;28:312317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Rettig MJ, Leelamankong P, Rungsri P, et al. Effect of sedation on fore- and hindlimb lameness evaluation using body-mounted inertial sensors. Equine Vet J 2016;48:603607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Taintor J, DeGraves F, Schumacher J. Effect of tranquilization or sedation on the gait of lame horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2016;43:97100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. American Association of Equine Practitioners. Guide for veterinary service and judging of equestrian events. 4th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991;19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Taylor P, Coumbe K, Henson F, et al. Evaluation of sedation for standing clinical procedures in horses using detomidine combined with buprenorphine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2014;41:1424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Hoerdemann M, Smith RL, Hosgood G. Duration of action of mepivacaine and lidocaine in equine palmar digital perineural blocks in an experimental lameness model. Vet Surg 2017;46:986993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Buchner HHF, Kubber P, Zohmann E, et al. Sedation and antisedation as tools in equine lameness examination. Equine Vet J Suppl 1999;30:227230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. López-Sanromán FJ, Holmbak-Petersen R, Varela M, et al. Accelerometric comparison of the locomotor pattern of horses sedated with xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, or romifidine hydrochloride. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:828834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Wojtasiak-Wypart M, Soma LR, Rudy JA, et al. Pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamics effects of romifidine hydrochloride in the horse. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2012;35:478488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Moens Y, Lanz F, Doherr MG, et al. A comparison of the antinociceptive effects of xylazine, detomidine and romifidine on experimental pain in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2003;30:183190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Rohrbach H, Korpivaara T, Schatzmann U, et al. Comparison of the effects of the alpha-2 agonists detomidine, romifidine and xylazine on nociceptive withdrawal reflex and temporal summation in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009;36:384395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. McCracken MJ, Kramer J, Keegan KG, et al. Comparison of an inertial sensor system of lameness quantification with subjective lameness evaluation. Equine Vet J 2012;44:652656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Keegan KG, MacAllister CG, Wilson DA, et al. Comparison of an inertial sensor system with a stationary force plate for evaluation of horses with bilateral forelimb lameness. Am J Vet Res 2012;73:368374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Marshall JF, Lund DG, Voute LC. Use of a wireless, inertial sensor-based system to objectively evaluate flexion tests in the horse. Equine Vet J Suppl 2012;44(suppl 43):811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Thomsen MH, Persson AB, Jensen AT, et al. Agreement between accelerometric symmetry scores and clinical lameness scores during experimentally induced transient distension of the metacarpophalangeal joint in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 2010;42(38):510515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. US Equestrian Federation. 2018 USEF guidelines & rules for drugs and medications. Available at: www.usef.org/forms-pubs/2Zp2C_YKs4s/drugs-medications-guidelines. Accessed Nov 26, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of the effects of commonly used α2-adrenergic receptor agonists alone and in combination with butorphanol tartrate on objective measurements of lameness in horses

Valerie J. Moorman DVM, PhD1, Luke Bass DVM, MS1, and Melissa R. King DVM, PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 1Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 3 α2-adrenergic receptor agonists (α2-ARAs), alone or in combination with butorphanol tartrate, on objective measurements of lameness in horses.

ANIMALS

17 adult polo horses with naturally occurring forelimb or hind limb lameness (or both).

PROCEDURES

In a crossover design, each horse received each protocol (saline [0.09% NaCl] solution [2 mL, IV] or xylazine hydrochloride [0.33 mg/kg, IV], detomidine hydrochloride [0.007 mg/kg, IV], or romifidine hydrochloride [0.033 mg/kg, IV] alone or in combination with butorphanol [0.007 mg/kg, IV]) in random order, with a washout period (≥ 7 days) between protocols. Horses were assessed immediately prior to (baseline) and 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after administration of each protocol for degree of sedation, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and objective lameness measurements.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline values, sedation scores and MNTs were significantly higher at all evaluated time points following administration of all sedation protocols except xylazine alone; following administration of xylazine alone, sedation scores and MNTs were significantly higher at ≤ 30 minutes and ≤ 20 minutes, respectively. Significant differences in objective forelimb lameness measurements were noted after administration of the 3 α2-ARA-butorphanol combinations. Most significant differences in objective measurements of hind limb lameness were detected after administration of detomidine or romifidine, alone or in combination with butorphanol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In the study horses, xylazine alone had the least impact on objective lameness measurements. The administration of α2-ARAs, particularly detomidine or romifidine, alone or in combination with butorphanol, resulted in small but significant effects on objective lameness measurements.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 3 α2-adrenergic receptor agonists (α2-ARAs), alone or in combination with butorphanol tartrate, on objective measurements of lameness in horses.

ANIMALS

17 adult polo horses with naturally occurring forelimb or hind limb lameness (or both).

PROCEDURES

In a crossover design, each horse received each protocol (saline [0.09% NaCl] solution [2 mL, IV] or xylazine hydrochloride [0.33 mg/kg, IV], detomidine hydrochloride [0.007 mg/kg, IV], or romifidine hydrochloride [0.033 mg/kg, IV] alone or in combination with butorphanol [0.007 mg/kg, IV]) in random order, with a washout period (≥ 7 days) between protocols. Horses were assessed immediately prior to (baseline) and 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after administration of each protocol for degree of sedation, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and objective lameness measurements.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline values, sedation scores and MNTs were significantly higher at all evaluated time points following administration of all sedation protocols except xylazine alone; following administration of xylazine alone, sedation scores and MNTs were significantly higher at ≤ 30 minutes and ≤ 20 minutes, respectively. Significant differences in objective forelimb lameness measurements were noted after administration of the 3 α2-ARA-butorphanol combinations. Most significant differences in objective measurements of hind limb lameness were detected after administration of detomidine or romifidine, alone or in combination with butorphanol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In the study horses, xylazine alone had the least impact on objective lameness measurements. The administration of α2-ARAs, particularly detomidine or romifidine, alone or in combination with butorphanol, resulted in small but significant effects on objective lameness measurements.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Moorman's present address is Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Address correspondence to Dr. Moorman (vj_moorman@yahoo.com).