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Measurements of the radiographic cardiac silhouette of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus)

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  • 1 1Clinic for the Rehabilitation of Wildlife, 3883 Sanibel Captiva Rd, Sanibel, FL 33957.
  • | 2 2Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205.
  • | 3 3Department of Ethology and Wildlife, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico.
  • | 4 4Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and report measurements of the radiographic cardiac silhouette of healthy juvenile and adult ospreys (Pandion haliaetus).

ANIMALS

54 ospreys (22 adults, 19 juveniles, and 13 birds of undetermined age) without clinical signs of cardiac disease and with adequate ventrodorsal radiographic images for cardiac silhouette assessment.

PROCEDURES

Radiographs of ospreys were assessed to determine cardiac width at the widest point as well as sternal width and thoracic width at the same level. Two-way mixed-effects models were used to evaluate interrater reliability for mean rating. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to create predictive models of cardiac width and to establish a theoretical reference range for healthy ospreys.

RESULTS

Cardiac width of healthy ospreys was approximately 90% to 92% of sternal width and 67% to 69% of thoracic width. Both sternal width and thoracic width were significant predictors of cardiac width in independent predictive models as well as in a combined model after controlling for age. Thirty-four of 41 (83%) measured cardiac widths were within the theoretical reference range.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Ospreys are sentinels used in monitoring environmental health. Environmental factors may have an impact on the cardiac health of ospreys, but reference values for healthy ospreys have not been established for use in assessing cardiomegaly in this species. The radiographic ratios and predictive model obtained in this study may be useful for objective evaluation of cardiomegaly in ospreys.

Contributor Notes

Drs. KMT Woo and Daugherty's present address is Lindsay Wildlife Experience, 1931 1st St, Walnut Creek, CA 94597.

Dr. Kehoe's present address is Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Address correspondence to Dr. Krystal M. T. Woo (kryswoo@gmail.com).