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Effect of catheter diameter and injection rate of flush solution on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with perfluorobutane in dogs

Jaewoo Hwang DVM1, Kyuyong Kang DVM1, Jiwon Kang DVM1, Jihye Nam DVM1, Saechol Park DVM1, Junghee Yoon DVM, PhD1, and Mincheol Choi DVM, PhD1
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  • 1 1Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess effects of catheter diameter and injection rate of flush solution (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with perfluorobutane in dogs.

ANIMALS

5 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

CEUS of the kidneys was performed by IV injection of contrast medium (0.0125 mL/kg) followed by injection of 5 mL of saline solution at rates of 1, 3, and 5 mL/s through a 20-gauge or 24-gauge catheter; thus, CEUS was repeated 3 times for each catheter diameter. Time-intensity curves were created for regions of interest drawn in the renal cortex and medulla. Repeatability was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). Statistical analysis was used to assess whether perfusion variables or CV of the perfusion variables was associated with catheter diameter or injection rate.

RESULTS

Perfusion variables did not differ significantly between catheter diameters. Time to peak enhancement (TTP) in the renal cortex was affected by injection rate, and there were significantly lower values for TTP at higher injection rates. The CEUS variables with the lowest CVs among injection rates were TTP for the renal cortex; the CV for TTP of the renal cortex was the lowest at an injection rate of 5 mL/s.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of a 24-gauge catheter did not alter CEUS with perfluorobutane; therefore, such catheters could be used for CEUS of the kidneys of small dogs. Moreover, a rate of 5 mL/s is recommended for injection of flush solution to obtain greater accuracy for renal CEUS in Beagles.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Choi (mcchoi@snu.ac.kr).