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In vitro evaluation of the knot-holding capacity and security, weight, and volume of forwarder knots tied with size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air, balanced electrolyte solution, or equine abdominal fat

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  • 1 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 2 2Center of Polymers and Advanced Composites, Samuel Ginn College of Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 3 3Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 4 4Fethard Equine Hospital, R689, Fethard, Ireland.
  • | 5 5Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.
  • | 6 6Department of Textile Engineering, Manosoura University, Dakahlia Governorate 35516, Egypt.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots.

SAMPLE

315 knots tied and tested in vitro.

PROCEDURES

United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws. A universal materials testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of suture and knots to failure, and the KHC, RKS, weight, and volume of knots were determined.

RESULTS

Forwarder knots had significantly higher KHC and RKS and lower volume, compared with surgeons’ knots. Forwarder knots tied with fat-exposed suture had greater weight, but not volume, than did forwarder knots tied with dry or BES-exposed suture with the same number of throws.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots.

SAMPLE

315 knots tied and tested in vitro.

PROCEDURES

United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws. A universal materials testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of suture and knots to failure, and the KHC, RKS, weight, and volume of knots were determined.

RESULTS

Forwarder knots had significantly higher KHC and RKS and lower volume, compared with surgeons’ knots. Forwarder knots tied with fat-exposed suture had greater weight, but not volume, than did forwarder knots tied with dry or BES-exposed suture with the same number of throws.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Video s1 (MP4 15.15 MB)

Contributor Notes

Dr. McGlinchey's present address is Scone Equine Hospital, 106 Liverpool St, Scone, NSW 2337, Australia.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hanson (hansorr@auburn.edu).