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Kinematic analysis of mandibular motion before and after mandibulectomy and mandibular reconstruction in dogs

Boaz Arzi DVM1, Frank J. M. Verstraete Dr Med Vet, MMedVet1, Tanya C. Garcia MS2, Monica Lee BS3, Se Eun Kim DVM, PhD4, and Susan M. Stover DVM, PhD2
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  • 1 1Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 2Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 3Department of School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Biology, College of Agricultural and Enviromental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 4Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and quantify the kinematic behavior of canine mandibles before and after bilateral rostral or unilateral segmental mandibulectomy as well as after mandibular reconstruction with a locking reconstruction plate in ex vivo conditions.

SAMPLE

Head specimens from cadavers of 16 dogs (range in body weight, 30 to 35 kg).

PROCEDURE

Specimens were assigned to undergo unilateral segmental (n = 8) or bilateral rostral (8) mandibulectomy and then mandibular reconstruction by internal fixation with locking plates. Kinematic markers were attached to each specimen in a custom-built load frame. Markers were tracked in 3-D space during standardized loading conditions, and mandibular motions were quantified. Differences in mandibular range of motion among 3 experimental conditions (before mandibulectomy [ie, with mandibles intact], after mandibulectomy, and after reconstruction) were assessed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS

Both unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy resulted in significantly greater mandibular motion and instability, compared with results for intact mandibles. No significant differences in motion were detected between mandibles reconstructed after unilateral segmental mandibulectomy and intact mandibles. Similarly, the motion of mandibles reconstructed after rostral mandibulectomy was no different from that of intact mandibles, except in the lateral direction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Mandibular kinematics in head specimens from canine cadavers were significantly altered after unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy. These alterations were corrected after mandibular reconstruction with locking reconstruction plates. Findings reinforced the clinical observations of the beneficial effect of reconstruction on mandibular function and the need for reconstructive surgery after mandibulectomy in dogs.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure s1 (PDF 529 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure s2 (PDF 213 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure s3 (PDF 534 kb)
    • Supplementary Figure s4 (PDF 672 kb)
    • Supplementary Table s1 (PDF 257 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Arzi (barzi@ucdavis.edu).