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Usefulness of focused cardiac ultrasonography for predicting fluid responsiveness in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs

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  • 1 1Centro Veterinario Imperiese, Via Amelio 10, 18100 Imperia, Italy.
  • | 2 2Anaesthesia and Critical Care Unit, Policlinico Veterinario Roma Sud, Via Pilade Mazza 24, 00173 Rome, Italy.
  • | 3 3Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of focused cardiac ultrasonography and selected echocardiographic variables for predicting fluid responsiveness in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs with various clinical conditions.

ANIMALS

26 dogs (15 males and 11 females) with a median age of 84 months (range, 12 to 360 months) and median body weight of 8 kg (range, 2 to 35 kg) referred for various clinical conditions.

PROCEDURES

Left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight (LVIDDn), left ventricular volume score (LVVS), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), aortic velocity time integral (VTIAo), and aortic peak flow velocity (VmaxAo) were echocardiographically measured before and after IV administration of a bolus of lactated Ringer solution (4 mL/kg) over a 1-minute period. Dogs were classified on the basis of the observed change in aortic stroke volume following fluid administration as responders (≥ 15%) or nonresponders (< 15%) to fluid administration. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for the ability of LVVS, LVIDDn, EDVI, VTIAo, and VmaxAo to predict responder status.

RESULTS

13 dogs were classified as responders and 13 as nonresponders. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (95% confidence intervals) for predicting fluid responsiveness were as follows: VTIAo, 0.91 (0.74 to 0.99); LVIDDn, 0.85 (0.66 to 0.96); EDVI, 0.85 (0.65 to 0.96); LVVS, 0.85 (0.65 to 0.96); and VmaxAo, 0.75 (0.54 to 0.90).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The evaluated echocardiographic variables were useful for noninvasive prediction of fluid responsiveness in conscious dogs and could be valuable for informing clinical decisions regarding fluid therapy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of focused cardiac ultrasonography and selected echocardiographic variables for predicting fluid responsiveness in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs with various clinical conditions.

ANIMALS

26 dogs (15 males and 11 females) with a median age of 84 months (range, 12 to 360 months) and median body weight of 8 kg (range, 2 to 35 kg) referred for various clinical conditions.

PROCEDURES

Left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight (LVIDDn), left ventricular volume score (LVVS), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), aortic velocity time integral (VTIAo), and aortic peak flow velocity (VmaxAo) were echocardiographically measured before and after IV administration of a bolus of lactated Ringer solution (4 mL/kg) over a 1-minute period. Dogs were classified on the basis of the observed change in aortic stroke volume following fluid administration as responders (≥ 15%) or nonresponders (< 15%) to fluid administration. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for the ability of LVVS, LVIDDn, EDVI, VTIAo, and VmaxAo to predict responder status.

RESULTS

13 dogs were classified as responders and 13 as nonresponders. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (95% confidence intervals) for predicting fluid responsiveness were as follows: VTIAo, 0.91 (0.74 to 0.99); LVIDDn, 0.85 (0.66 to 0.96); EDVI, 0.85 (0.65 to 0.96); LVVS, 0.85 (0.65 to 0.96); and VmaxAo, 0.75 (0.54 to 0.90).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The evaluated echocardiographic variables were useful for noninvasive prediction of fluid responsiveness in conscious dogs and could be valuable for informing clinical decisions regarding fluid therapy.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Oricco (stefano.oricco@gmail.com).