• 1. McIlwraith CW, Vachon A. Review of pathogenesis and treatment of degenerative joint disease. Equine Vet J Suppl 1988;6:311.

  • 2. Kawcak CE, McIlwraith CW, Norrdin RW, et al. The role of subchondral bone in joint disease: a review. Equine Vet J 2001;33:120126.

  • 3. Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ. Articular cartilage; part II: degeneration and osteoarthrosis, repair, regeneration and transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997;79-A:612622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Dieppe P. Research in osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2006;18:512513.

  • 5. Caron JP. Osteoarthritis. In: Ross MW, Dyson SJ, eds. Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2011;655668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Kuyinu EL, Narayanan G, Nair LS, et al. Animal models of osteoarthritis: classification, update, and measurement of outcomes. J Orthop Surg Res 2016;11:19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Foland JW, McIlwraith CW, Trotter GW, et al. Effect of beta-methasone and exercise on equine carpal joints with osteochondral fragments. Vet Surg 1994;23:369376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. McIlwraith CW, Frisbie DD, Kawcak CE. The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2012;1:297309.

  • 9. Goranov NV. Experimental osteoarthritis models in veterinary medicine—revelance, potential and challenges. Bulg J Vet Med 2011;14:191200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Gustafson SB, Trotter GW, Norrdin RW, et al. Evaluation of intra-articularly administered sodium monoiodoacetate-induced chemical injury to articular cartilage of horses. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:11931202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Simmons EJ, Bertone AL, Weisbrode SE. Instability-induced osteoarthritis in the metacarpophalangeal joint of horses. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Boyce MK, Trumble TN, Carlson CS, et al. Non-terminal animal model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis induced by acute joint injury. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2013;21:746755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Maninchedda U, Lepage OM, Gangl M, et al. Development of an equine groove model to induce metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis: a pilot study on 6 horses. PLoS One 2015;10:e0115089.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Rickey EJ, Cruz AM, Trout DR, et al. Evaluation of experimental impact injury for inducing post-traumatic osteoarthritis in the metacarpophalangeal joints of horses. Am J Vet Res 2012;73:15401552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. American Association of Equine Practitioners Horse Show Committee. Guide to veterinary services for horse shows. 7th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Keegan KG, MacAllister CG, Wilson DA, et al. Comparison of an inertial sensor system with a stationary force plate for evaluation of horses with bilateral forelimb lameness. Am J Vet Res 2012;73:368374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. McCracken MJ, Kramer J, Keegan KG, et al. Comparison of an inertial sensor system of lameness quantification with subjective lameness evaluation. Equine Vet J 2012;44:652656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Oosterlinck M, Pille F, Back W, et al. Use of a stand-alone pressure plate for the objective evaluation of forelimb symmetry in sound ponies at walk and trot. Vet J 2010;183:305309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. van Heel MC, Barneveld A, van Weeren PR, et al. Dynamic pressure measurements for the detailed study of hoof balance: the effect of trimming. Equine Vet J 2004;36:778782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Cornelissen BP, Rijkenhuizen AB, van den Hoogen BM, et al. Experimental model of synovitis/arthritis in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:978985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. McIlwraith CW, Frisbie DD, Kawcak CE, et al. The OARSI histopathology initiative—recommendations for histological assessments of osteoarthritis in the horse. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18 (suppl 3):S93S105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Broeckx SY, Borena BM, Van Hecke L, et al. Comparison of autologous versus allogeneic epithelial-like stem cell treatment in an in vivo equine skin wound model. Cytotherapy 2015;17:14341446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Newman JC, Prange T, Jennings S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin following intravenous, intramuscular, and intra-articular administration in healthy horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2013;36:532541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Frisbie DD, Barrett MF, McIlwraith CW, et al. Diagnostic stifle joint arthroscopy using a needle arthroscope in standing horses. Vet Surg 2014;43:1218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Keegan KG, Wilson DA, Kramer J, et al. Comparison of a body-mounted inertial sensor system-based method with subjective evaluation for detection of lameness in horses. Am J Vet Res 2013;74:1724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Malone ED. Managing chronic arthritis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2002;18:411437.

  • 27. Kaido M, Kilborne AH, Sizemore JL, et al. Effects of repetition within trials and frequency of trial sessions on quantitative parameters of vertical force peak in horses with naturally occurring lameness. Am J Vet Res 2016;77:756765.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Goodrich LR, Nixon AJ. Medical treatment of osteoarthritis in the horse—a review. Vet J 2006;171:5169.

  • 29. Rossetti RB, de Oliveira Massoco C, Alves Penna AC, et al. An experimental study to compare inflammatory response due to liquid or gas joint distention in horses submitted to arthroscopy. Acta Cir Bras 2012;27:848854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Jones DL, Barber SM, Doige CE. Synovial fluid and clinical changes after arthroscopic partial synovectomy of the equine middle carpal joint. Vet Surg 1993;22:524530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Carlson CS, Guilak F, Vail TP, et al. Synovial fluid biomarker levels predict articular cartilage damage following complete medial meniscectomy in the canine knee. J Orthop Res 2002;20:92100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Trumble TN, Billinghurst RC, McIlwraith CW. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:12691275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. de Souza MV. Osteoarthritis in horses—part 1: relationship between clinical and radiographical examination for the diagnosis. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2016;59e16150024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Frisbie DD, Ghivizzani SC, Robbins PD, et al. Treatment of experimental equine osteoarthritis by in vivo delivery of the equine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene. Gene Ther 2002;9:1220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Kawcak CE, Frisbie DD, Werpy NM, et al. Effects of exercise vs experimental osteoarthritis on imaging outcomes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:15191525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Frisbie DD, Kawcak CE, Baxter GM, et al. Effects of 6alpha-methylprednisolone acetate on an equine osteochondral fragment exercise model. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:16191628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Saltzman BM, Leroux T, Meyer MA, et al. The therapeutic effect of intra-articular normal saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of evidence level 1 studies. Am J Sports Med 2017;45:26472653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Wanstrath AW, Hettlich BF, Su L, et al. Evaluation of a single intra-articular injection of autologous protein solution for treatment of osteoarthritis in a canine population. Vet Surg 2016;45:764774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Balazs EA. The physical properties of synovial fluid and the special role of hyaluronic acid. In: Disorders of the knee. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Co, 1974;6375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Johal H, Devji T, Schemitsch EH, et al. Viscosupplementation in knee osteoarthritis: evidence revisited. JBJS Rev 2016;4:e11e111.

  • 41. Wilke MM, Nydam DV, Nixon AJ. Enhanced early chondrogenesis in articular defects following arthroscopic mesenchymal stem cell implantation in an equine model. J Orthop Res 2007;25:913925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. McIlwraith CW, Frisbie DD, Rodkey WG, et al. Evaluation of intra-articular mesenchymal stem cells to augment healing of microfractured chondral defects. Arthroscopy 2011;27:15521561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure for induction of metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis in horses

Sarah Y. Broeckx DVM1,2, Frederik Pille DVM, PhD3, Simon Buntinx MVetMed4, Leen Van Brantegem DVM, PhD5, Luc Duchateau PhD6, Maarten Oosterlinck DVM, PhD7, Koen Chiers DVM, PhD8, Alicia L. Bertone DVM, PhD9, Jan H. Spaas DVM, PhD10, and Ann M. Martens DVM, PhD11
View More View Less
  • 1 Global Stem Cell Technology NV, Anacura Group, Noorwegenstraat 4, 9940 Evergem, Belgium.
  • | 2 Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 3 Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 4 Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 5 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 6 Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 7 Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 8 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  • | 9 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 10 Global Stem Cell Technology NV, Anacura Group, Noorwegenstraat 4, 9940 Evergem, Belgium.
  • | 11 Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses.

ANIMALS 6 nonlame adult warmbloods.

PROCEDURES The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness. Both MCP joints were assessed radiographically on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 35, and 77. A synovial fluid sample was collected from the right MCP joint on days 0 (before surgery), 35, 36, 49, 63, and 77 for cytologic and biomarker analyses. On day 77, each horse was euthanized; both MCP joints were evaluated macroscopically and histologically.

RESULTS Right forelimb lameness was detected visually and by the inertial sensor system when horses were moving on a straight line after distal forelimb flexion or circling left on days 14 to 77. Compared with presurgical values, synovial fluid interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, hyaluronic acid, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein concentrations were increased at 2 or 3 time points, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 concentrations were decreased at 1 time point. Gross examination of all right MCP joints revealed synovitis and wear lines; synovitis was confirmed histologically.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a combined osteochondral fragment–groove procedure can be used to induce clinically and grossly observable early MCP joint osteoarthritis during an 11-week period in horses.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses.

ANIMALS 6 nonlame adult warmbloods.

PROCEDURES The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness. Both MCP joints were assessed radiographically on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 35, and 77. A synovial fluid sample was collected from the right MCP joint on days 0 (before surgery), 35, 36, 49, 63, and 77 for cytologic and biomarker analyses. On day 77, each horse was euthanized; both MCP joints were evaluated macroscopically and histologically.

RESULTS Right forelimb lameness was detected visually and by the inertial sensor system when horses were moving on a straight line after distal forelimb flexion or circling left on days 14 to 77. Compared with presurgical values, synovial fluid interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, hyaluronic acid, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein concentrations were increased at 2 or 3 time points, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 concentrations were decreased at 1 time point. Gross examination of all right MCP joints revealed synovitis and wear lines; synovitis was confirmed histologically.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a combined osteochondral fragment–groove procedure can be used to induce clinically and grossly observable early MCP joint osteoarthritis during an 11-week period in horses.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Buntinx's present address is DAP Simon Buntinx, Kolmenstraat 75, 3512 Hasselt, Belgium.

Drs. Broeckx and Pille contributed equally to the study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Spaas (Jan.Spaas@anacura.com).