• 1. Stegemann MR, Passmore CA, Sherington J, et al. Antimicrobial activity and spectrum of cefovecin, a new extended-spectrum cephalosporin, against pathogens collected from dogs and cats in Europe and North America. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:22862292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Bakker J, Thuesen LR, Braskamp G, et al. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a pharmacokinetic study. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2011;34:464468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Cox S, Sommardahl C, Seddighi R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpaca. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2015;38:344349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Stegemann MR, Sherington J, Blanchflower S. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cefovecin in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2006;29:501511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Stegemann MR, Sherington J, Coati N, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2006;29:513524.

  • 6. Cushing AC, Ramsay EC, Steeil J, et al. Pharmacokinetic parameters of cefovecin sodium (Convenia) in captive tigers (Panthera tigris). J Zoo Wildl Med 2017;48:11881192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. García-Párraga D, Gilabert JA, García-Peña FJ, et al. Long-lasting concentrations of cefovecin after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration to Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Vet J 2016;208:6569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Passmore CA, Sherington J, Stegemann MR. Efficacy and safety of cefovecin for the treatment of urinary tract infections in cats. J Small Anim Pract 2008;49:295301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Goff D. Annual report of the Felid Taxon Advisory Group. Silver Spring, Md: Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 2017.

  • 10. Schrader GM, Whiteside DP, Slater OM, et al. Conservative management of pyothorax in an amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). J Zoo Wildl Med 2012;43:425429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Silva ROS, D'elia ML, Soares DFM, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Anaerobe 2013;20:8284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Steeil J, Schumacher J, Seibert R, et al. Cefovecin (Convenia) for the treatment of septic peritonitis in a female lion (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 2012;43:678681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Nardini G, Barbarossa A, Dall'Occo A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after subcutaneous administration to Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Am J Vet Res 2014;75:918923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Raabe BM, Lovaglio J, Grover GS, et al. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2011;50:389395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Thuesen LR, Bertelsen MF, Brimer L, et al. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin in hens and green iguanas. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2009;32:613617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Craig WA. Interrelationship between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in determining dosage regimens for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1995;22:8996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration of a single dose of cefovecin sodium in African lions (Panthera leo)

View More View Less
  • 1 Oregon Zoo, 4001 SW Canyon Rd, Portland, OR 97221.
  • | 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.
  • | 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.
  • | 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration of a single dose to African lions (Panthera leo).

ANIMALS 3 adult (9 to 10 years old; 1 male and 2 females) and 3 juvenile (2 years old; 1 male and 2 females) African lions.

PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. A single dose of cefovecin was administered SC at 4 mg/kg (half dose) and 8 mg/kg (full dose) to African lions. Blood samples were collected daily for 14 days after cefovecin injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

RESULTS Cefovecin had first-order elimination kinetics for doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg. Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 9.73 ± 1.01 μg/mL and 18.35 ± 0.94 μg/mL after doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg, respectively. Time to maximum plasma concentration was approximately 4 hours for both doses. Mean elimination half-life was approximately 111 and 115 hours after doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cefovecin was detected in lion plasma for 336 hours after administration at both 4 and 8 mg/kg at concentrations greater than the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (0.06 μg/mL) for common bacterial organisms in domestic cats. These results indicated that cefovecin administered at 4 mg/kg SC reached therapeutic concentrations for an extended period in African lions.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration of a single dose to African lions (Panthera leo).

ANIMALS 3 adult (9 to 10 years old; 1 male and 2 females) and 3 juvenile (2 years old; 1 male and 2 females) African lions.

PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. A single dose of cefovecin was administered SC at 4 mg/kg (half dose) and 8 mg/kg (full dose) to African lions. Blood samples were collected daily for 14 days after cefovecin injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

RESULTS Cefovecin had first-order elimination kinetics for doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg. Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 9.73 ± 1.01 μg/mL and 18.35 ± 0.94 μg/mL after doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg, respectively. Time to maximum plasma concentration was approximately 4 hours for both doses. Mean elimination half-life was approximately 111 and 115 hours after doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cefovecin was detected in lion plasma for 336 hours after administration at both 4 and 8 mg/kg at concentrations greater than the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (0.06 μg/mL) for common bacterial organisms in domestic cats. These results indicated that cefovecin administered at 4 mg/kg SC reached therapeutic concentrations for an extended period in African lions.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Flaminio (Kelly.Flaminio@oregonzoo.org).