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Evaluation of diagnostic coelioscopy in koi (Cyprinus carpio)

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 4 Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle.

ANIMALS 16 subadult koi.

PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used. Ease of entry into the coelomic cavity and visual examination of structures were scored for each fish. Fish were euthanized 2 or 8 weeks after the procedure, and necropsy was performed.

RESULTS The coelioscopic procedure was tolerated well, and all koi recovered uneventfully. For all fish, ease of entry and visual examination scores of the liver, intestines, gonads, heart, and anterior kidney were satisfactory to excellent. Visual examination of the posterior kidney and swim bladder was satisfactory to difficult, whereas the spleen and gallbladder were not visually identified. No significant differences were noted in entry or visual examination scores between the cranial and caudal approaches or between sexes. Minor complications included mild hemorrhage, rupture of the gonadal capsule, formation of adhesions between the viscera and incision site, and delayed healing of the incision.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diagnostic coelioscopy of koi appeared to be safe and effective. This procedure could have potential for use in examination of coelomic structures and disease diagnosis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle.

ANIMALS 16 subadult koi.

PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used. Ease of entry into the coelomic cavity and visual examination of structures were scored for each fish. Fish were euthanized 2 or 8 weeks after the procedure, and necropsy was performed.

RESULTS The coelioscopic procedure was tolerated well, and all koi recovered uneventfully. For all fish, ease of entry and visual examination scores of the liver, intestines, gonads, heart, and anterior kidney were satisfactory to excellent. Visual examination of the posterior kidney and swim bladder was satisfactory to difficult, whereas the spleen and gallbladder were not visually identified. No significant differences were noted in entry or visual examination scores between the cranial and caudal approaches or between sexes. Minor complications included mild hemorrhage, rupture of the gonadal capsule, formation of adhesions between the viscera and incision site, and delayed healing of the incision.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diagnostic coelioscopy of koi appeared to be safe and effective. This procedure could have potential for use in examination of coelomic structures and disease diagnosis.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Stevens’ present address is Aquarium of the Pacific, 100 Aquarium Way, Long Beach, CA 90802.

Address correspondence to Dr. Soto (sotomartinez@ucdavis.edu).