• 1. Clegg PD. Musculoskeletal disease and injury, now and in the future. Part 2: tendon and ligament injuries. Equine Vet J 2012;44:371375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Perkins NR, Reid SWJ, Morris RS. Profiling the New Zealand Thoroughbred racing industry. 2: conditions interfering with training and racing. N Z Vet J 2005;53:6976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Cogger N, Evans DL, Hodgson DR, et al. Incidence rate of musculoskeletal injuries and determinants of time to recovery in young Australian Thoroughbred racehorses. Aust Vet J 2008;86:473480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Perkins NR, Reid SWJ, Morris RS. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limbs in Thoroughbred racehorses in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 2005;53:171183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Williams RB, Harkins LS, Hammond CJ, et al. Racehorse injuries, clinical problems and fatalities recorded on British racecourses from flat racing and National Hunt racing during 1996, 1997 and 1998. Equine Vet J 2001;33:478486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Degueurce C, Pourcelot P, Denoix JM, et al. Three-dimensional kinematic technique for evaluation of horse locomotion in outdoor conditions. Med Biol Eng Comput 1996;34:249252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Woo SLY, Ohland KJ, Weiss JA. Aging and sex-related changes in the biomechanical properties of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. Mech Ageing Dev 1990;56:129142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Hart RA, Akeson WH, Spratt K, et al. Collagen fibril diameter distributions in rabbit anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments: changes with maturation. Iowa Orthop J 1999;19:6670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Shetye SS, Malhotra K, Ryan SD, et al. Determination of mechanical properties of canine carpal ligaments. Am J Vet Res 2009;70:10261030.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Woo SLY, Debski RE, Zeminski J, et al. Injury and repair of ligaments and tendons. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2000;2:83118.

  • 11. Germscheid NM, Thornton GM, Hart DA, et al. A biomechanical assessment to evaluate breed differences in normal porcine medial collateral ligaments. J Biomech 2011;44:725731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Woo SLY, Gomez MA, Seguchi Y, et al. Measurement of mechanical properties of ligament substance from a bone ligament bone preparation. J Orthop Res 1983;1:2229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Woo SLY, Orlando CA, Camp JF, et al. Effects of postmortem storage by freezing on ligament tensile behavior. J Biomech 1986;19:399404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Thorpe CT, Stark RJ, Goodship AE, et al. Mechanical properties of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon relate to specific collagen cross-link levels. Equine Vet J Suppl 2010;42:538543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Bowser JE, Elder SH, Rashmir-Raven AM, et al. A cryogenic clamping technique that facilitates ultimate tensile strength determinations in tendons and ligaments. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2011;24:370373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Harrison SM, Whitton RC, Kawcak CE, et al. Relationship between muscle forces, joint loading and utilization of elastic strain energy in equine locomotion. J Exp Biol 2010;213:39984009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Singer E, Garcia T, Stover S. How do metacarpophalangeal joint extension, collateromotion and axial rotation influence dorsal surface strains of the equine proximal phalanx at different loads in vitro? J Biomech 2013;46:738744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Clayton HM, Sha D, Stick J, et al. 3D kinematics of the interphalangeal joints in the forelimb of walking and trotting horses. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2007;20:17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Clayton HM, Sha D, Stick JA, et al. Three-dimensional carpal kinematics of trotting horses. Equine Vet J 2004;36:671676.

  • 20. Stutz JC, Vidondo B, Ramseyer A, et al. Effect of three types of horseshoes and unshod feet on selected non-podal forelimb kinematic variables measured by an extremity mounted inertial measurement unit sensor system in sound horses at the trot under conditions of treadmill and soft geotextile surface exercise. Vet Rec Open 2018;5:e000237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Pollock CM, Shadwick RE. Relationship between body-mass and biomechanical properties of limb tendons in adult mammals. Am J Physiol 1994;266:R1016R1021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Colborne GR, Routh JE, Weir KR, et al. Associations between hoof shape and the position of the frontal plane ground reaction force vector in walking horses. N Z Vet J 2016;64:7681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Becker CK, Savelberg H, Barneveld A. In-vitro mechanical-properties of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses in relation to age. Equine Vet J 1994;26:454459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Brett AW, Oliver ML, Agur AMR, et al. Quantification of the transverse carpal ligament elastic properties by sex and region. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2014;29:601606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Qian K, Traylor K, Lee SW, et al. Mechanical properties vary for different regions of the finger extensor apparatus. J Biomech 2014;47:30943099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Siegler S, Block J, Schneck CD. The mechanical characteristics of the collateral ligaments of the human ankle joint. Foot Ankle 1988;8:234242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Rogers CW, Firth EC, McIlwraith CW, et al. Evaluation of a new strategy to modulate skeletal development in Thoroughbred performance horses by imposing track-based exercise during growth. Equine Vet J 2008;40:111118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Helminen HJ, Hyttinen MM, Lammi MJ, et al. Regular joint loading in youth assists in the establishment and strengthening of the collagen network of articular cartilage and contributes to the prevention of osteoarthrosis later in life: a hypothesis. J Bone Miner Metab 2000;18:245257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Moffat PA, Firth EC, Rogers CW, et al. The influence of exercise during growth on ultrasonographic parameters of the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 2008;40:136140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Rogers CW, Firth EC, McIlwraith CW, et al. Evaluation of a new strategy to modulate skeletal development in racehorses by imposing track-based exercise during growth: the effects on 2- and 3-year-old racing careers. Equine Vet J 2008;40:119127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Kiapour AM, Shalvoy MR, Murray MM, et al. Validation of porcine knee as a sex-specific model to study human anterior cruciate ligament disorders. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2015;473:639650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Murray RC, Walters JM, Snart H, et al. Identification of risk factors for lameness in dressage horses. Vet J 2010;184:2736.

  • 33. Dyson S. Equine performance and equitation science: clinical issues. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2017;190:517.

  • 34. Parkes RS, Newton JR, Dyson SJ. An investigation of risk factors for foot-related lameness in a United Kingdom referral population of horses. Vet J 2013;196:218225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Woo SLY, Lee TQ, Gomez MA, et al. Temperature dependent behavior of the canine medial collateral ligament. J Biomech Eng 1987;109:6871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Mo F, Arnoux PJ, Cesari D, et al. The failure modelling of knee ligaments in the finite element model. Int J Crashworthiness 2012;17:630636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Abramowitch SD, Papageorgiou CD, Debski RE, et al. A biomechanical and histological evaluation of the structure and function of the healing medial collateral ligament in a goat model. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2003;11:155162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Rapoff AJ, Heisey DM, Vanderby R Jr. A probabilistic rule of mixtures for elastic moduli. J Biomech 1999;32:189193.

  • 39. Woo SLY, Peterson RH, Ohland KJ, et al. The effects of strain rate on the properties of the medial collateral ligament in skeletally immature and mature rabbits: a biomechanical and histological study. J Orthop Res 1990;8:712721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Swanstrom MD, Zarucco L, Hubbard M, et al. Musculoskeletal modeling and dynamic simulation of the Thoroughbred equine forelimb during stance phase of the gallop. J Biomech Eng 2005;127:318328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Elastic properties of collateral and sesamoid ligaments in the forelimbs of equine cadavers

View More View Less
  • 1 1School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the elastic modulus of various ligaments of the forelimbs of cadaveric horses.

SAMPLE

408 ligaments from 37 forelimbs of 10 Thoroughbred cadavers and cadavers of 9 other horse breeds.

PROCEDURES

Collateral ligaments and straight and oblique sesamoid ligaments were harvested from the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, carpal, and elbow joints of both forelimbs of all 19 horses. Ligament dimensions were measured, and the elastic modulus was determined by tensile testing the ligaments with a strain rate of 1 mm•s−1.

RESULTS

Elastic modulus of the ligaments differed significantly among joints. Highest mean ± SE elastic modulus was for the medial collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joints of Thoroughbreds (68.3 ± 11.0 MPa), and the lowest was for the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joints of other breeds (2.8 ± 0.3 MPa). Thoroughbreds had a significantly higher elastic modulus for the collateral ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, compared with values for the other breeds. There was large variation in elastic modulus. Elastic modulus was negatively affected by age. In the ligaments in the distal aspect of the forelimbs, elastic modulus was negatively affected by height at the highest point of the shoulders (ie, withers).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cross-sectional area and elastic modulus of collateral ligaments in the forelimbs of equine cadavers differed between breeds and among joints, which may have been reflective of their relative physiologic function under loading during exercise.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Colborne (G.R.Colborne@massey.ac.nz).