• 1. Gettes BC. Tropicamide, a new cycloplegic mydriatic. Arch Ophthalmol 1961;65:632635.

  • 2. Rubin LF, Wolfes RL. Mydriatics for canine ophthalmoscopy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1962;140:137141.

  • 3. Gelatt KN. Eye examination and diagnostics. In: Gelatt KN, ed. Essentials of veterinary ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014;101144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Mapstone R. Safe mydriasis. Br J Ophthalmol 1970;54:690692.

  • 5. Kovalcuka L, Ilgazs A, Bandere D, et al. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter during use of topical mydriatics in the canine eye. Open Vet J 2017;7:1622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Stadtbäumer K, Köstlin RG, Zahn KJ. Effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide on intraocular pressure in normal cats. Vet Ophthalmol 2002;5:107112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Harris LS. Cycloplegic-induced intraocular pressure elevations: a study of normal and open-angle glaucomatous eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1968;79:242246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Kim JM, Park KH, Han SY, et al. Changes in intraocular pressure after pharmacologic pupil dilation. BMC Ophthalmol 2012;12:53.

  • 9. Dulaurent T, Goulle F, Dulaurent A, et al. Effect of mydriasis induced by topical instillations of 0.5% tropicamide on the anterior segment in normotensive dogs using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Vet Ophthalmol 2012;15(suppl 1):8–13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Karas AZ. Sedation and chemical restraint in the dog and cat. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 1999;14:1526.

  • 11. Collins BK, Gross ME, Moore CP, et al. Physiologic, pharmacologic, and practical considerations for anesthesia of domestic animals with eye disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;207:220230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Kukanich B, Wiese AJ. Opioids. In: Grimm KA, Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, et al, eds. Veterinary anesthesia and analgesia: the fifth edition of Lumb and Jones. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015;207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Orsini J. Butorphanol tartrate: pharmacology and clinical indications. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1988;10:849854.

  • 14. Hosgood G. Pharmacologic features of butorphanol in dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:135136.

  • 15. Simon BT, Steagall PV. The present and future of opioid analgesics in small animal practice. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2017;40:315326.

  • 16. Douet J-Y, Régnier A, Dongay A, et al. Effect of sedation with butorphanol on variables pertaining to the ophthalmic examination in dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 2018;21:452458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Denion E, Charlot F, Béraud G. A 5-minute interval between two dilating eye drops increases their effect. Optom Vis Sci 2017;94:838844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Ko JC, Fox SM, Mandsager RE. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine, medetomidine-butorphanol, and medetomidine-ketamine in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:15781583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Girard NM, Leece EA, Cardwell J, et al. The sedative effects of low-dose medetomidine and butorphanol alone and in combination intravenously in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010;37:16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Maddern K, Adams VJ, Hill NA, et al. Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010;37:713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Wilkie DA, Latimer CA. Effects of topical administration of timolol maleate on intraocular pressure and pupil size in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:432435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Broadwater JJ, Schorling JJ, Herring IP, et al. Effect of body position on intraocular pressure in dogs without glaucoma. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:527530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Pauli AM, Bentley E, Diehl KA, et al. Effects of the application of neck pressure by a collar or harness on intraocular pressure in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006;42:207211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Kahane N, Raskansky H, Bdolah-Abram T, et al. The effects of topical parasympatholytic drugs on pupil diameter and intraocular pressure in healthy dogs treated with 0.005% latanoprost. Vet Ophthalmol 2016;19:464472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Featherstone HJ, Heinrich CL. Ophthalmic examination and diagnostics. Part 1: the eye examination and diagnostic procedures. In: Gelatt KN, Gilger BC, Kern TJ, eds. Veterinary ophthalmology. 5th ed. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013;533702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Trim CM. Cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol tartrate in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:329331.

  • 27. Puighibet Z, Costa-Farré C, Santos L, et al. The sedative effects of intramuscular low-dose medetomidine in combination with butorphanol or methadone in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2015;42:590596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Claude AK, Dedeaux A, Chiavaccini L, et al. Effects of maropitant citrate or acepromazine on the incidence of adverse events associated with hydromorphone premedication in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:14141417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Moore AS, Rand WM, Berg J, et al. Evaluation of butorphanol and cyproheptadine for prevention of cisplatin-induced vomiting in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994;205:441443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Drago F, Gorgone G, Spina F, et al. Opiate receptors in the rabbit iris. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1980;315:14.

  • 31. Lee HK, Wang SC. Mechanism of morphine-induced miosis in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1975;192:415431.

  • 32. Sharpe LG, Pickworth WB. Opposite pupillary size effects in the cat and dog after microinjections of morphine, normorphine and clonidine in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Brain Res Bull 1985;15:329333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Murray RB, Tallarida RJ. Pupillographic analysis of morphine action in the rabbit: role to the autonomic nervous system. Eur J Pharmacol 1982;80:197202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Knaggs RD, Crighton IM, Cobby TF, et al. The pupillary effects of intravenous morphine, codeine, and tramadol in volunteers. Anesth Analg 2004;99:108112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Murray RB, Adler MW, Korczyn AD. The pupillary effects of opioids. Life Sci 1983;33:495509.

  • 36. Pachter IJ, Evens RP. Butorphanol. Drug Alcohol Depend 1985;14:325338.

  • 37. Kovalcuka L, Birgele E, Bandere D, et al. The effects of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam on the intraocular pressure and pupil diameter of the dog's eye. Vet Ophthalmol 2013;16:2934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Gross ME, Pablo LS. Ophthalmic patients. In: Grimm KA, Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, et al, eds. Veterinary anesthesia and analgesia: the fifth edition of Lumb and Jones. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015;961982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Kaswan RL, Quandt JE, Moore PA. Narcotics, miosis, and cataract surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;201:18191820.

  • 40. Murphy DF. Anesthesia and intraocular pressure. Anesth Analg 1985;64:520530.

  • 41. Stagni E, Bucolo C, Motterlini R, et al. Morphine-induced ocular hypotension is modulated by nitric oxide and carbon monoxide: role of μ3 receptors. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2010;26:3135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Hvidberg A, Kessing SV, Fernandes A. Effect of changes in Pco2 and body positions on intraocular pressure during general anaesthesia. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1981;59:465475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Hasiuk MM, Forde N, Cooke A, et al. A comparison of alfaxalone and propofol on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 2014;17:411416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Wallin-Håkanson N, Wallin-Håkanson B. The effects of topical tropicamide and systemic medetomidine, followed by atipamezole reversal, on pupil size and intraocular pressure in normal dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 2001;4:36.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Hacker DV, Farver TB. Effects of tropicamide on intraocular pressure in normal dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1988;24:411415.

  • 46. Wolfs RC, Grobbee DE, Hofman A, et al. Risk of acute angle-closure glaucoma after diagnostic mydriasis in nonselected subjects: the Rotterdam Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:26832687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Grozdanic SD, Kecova H, Harper MM, et al. Functional and structural changes in a canine model of hereditary primary angle-closure glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:255263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Gomes FE, Bentley E, Lin TL, et al. Effects of unilateral topical administration of 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology and intraocular pressure in normal cats and cats with primary congenital glaucoma. Vet Ophthalmol 2011;14(suppl 1):75–83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Rauser P, Pfeifr J, Proks P, et al. Effect of medetomidinebutorphanol and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combinations on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2012;39:301305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Hawley AT, Wetmore LA. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within exon 1 of the canine mu-opioid receptor gene. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010;37:7982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Taylor NR, Zele AJ, Vingrys AJ, et al. Variation in intraocular pressure following application of tropicamide in three different dog breeds. Vet Ophthalmol 2007;10(suppl 1):8–11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure after topical application of 0.5% tropicamide to the eyes of dogs sedated with butorphanol

View More View Less
  • 1 Département des Sciences Cliniques des animaux de compagnie, de sports et de loisirs, Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.
  • | 2 Département des Sciences Cliniques des animaux de compagnie, de sports et de loisirs, Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.
  • | 3 Département des Sciences Biologiques et Fonctionnelles, Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.
  • | 4 Département des Sciences Cliniques des animaux de compagnie, de sports et de loisirs, Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.
  • | 5 Département des Sciences Cliniques des animaux de compagnie, de sports et de loisirs, Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure (IOP) following topical application of a 0.5% tropicamide solution in the eyes of healthy butorphanol-sedated dogs.

ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 treatment periods with a 1-week washout between periods, dogs received an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. For each dog, 1 drop of 0.5% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was topically instilled in one eye and 1 drop of artificial tear solution was topically instilled in the other eye 10 minutes after the IM injection and again 5 minutes later. Extent of sedation, pupil size, and IOP were evaluated from 20 minutes before to 80 minutes after the IM injection and compared among treatment combinations.

RESULTS: Butorphanol induced mild (n = 9) or moderate (3) sedation in all dogs and slightly delayed the onset of, but did not prevent, tropicamide-induced mydriasis. Butorphanol caused a significant increase in IOP, which was not exacerbated by tropicamide-induced mydriasis; however, that increase was generally not sufficient to exceed the upper limit of the IOP reference range.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that butorphanol did not prevent tropicamide-induced mydriasis but did increase the IOP in ophthalmologically normal Beagles. Although the butorphanol-induced increase in IOP did not appear clinically relevant for the dogs of this study, that may not be true for dogs with glaucoma, and care should be taken when butorphanol is administered to such dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure (IOP) following topical application of a 0.5% tropicamide solution in the eyes of healthy butorphanol-sedated dogs.

ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 treatment periods with a 1-week washout between periods, dogs received an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. For each dog, 1 drop of 0.5% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was topically instilled in one eye and 1 drop of artificial tear solution was topically instilled in the other eye 10 minutes after the IM injection and again 5 minutes later. Extent of sedation, pupil size, and IOP were evaluated from 20 minutes before to 80 minutes after the IM injection and compared among treatment combinations.

RESULTS: Butorphanol induced mild (n = 9) or moderate (3) sedation in all dogs and slightly delayed the onset of, but did not prevent, tropicamide-induced mydriasis. Butorphanol caused a significant increase in IOP, which was not exacerbated by tropicamide-induced mydriasis; however, that increase was generally not sufficient to exceed the upper limit of the IOP reference range.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that butorphanol did not prevent tropicamide-induced mydriasis but did increase the IOP in ophthalmologically normal Beagles. Although the butorphanol-induced increase in IOP did not appear clinically relevant for the dogs of this study, that may not be true for dogs with glaucoma, and care should be taken when butorphanol is administered to such dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Douet (jy.douet@envt.fr).