• 1. Slocum B, Slocum TD. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy for repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1993;23:777795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Boudrieau RJ, McCarthy RJ, Sisson RD Jr. Sarcoma of the proximal portion of the tibia in a dog 5.5 years after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:16131617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Sartor AJ, Ryan SD, Sellmeyer T, et al. Bi-institutional retrospective cohort study evaluating the incidence of osteosarcoma following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (2000–2009). Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2014;27:339345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Charles AE, Ness MG. Crevice corrosion of implants recovered after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Vet Surg 2006;35:438444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Boudrieau RJ, McCarthy RJ, Sprecher CM, et al. Material properties of and tissue reaction to the Slocum TPLO plate. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:12581265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Lackowski WM, Vasilyeva YB, Crooks RM, et al. Microchemical and surface evaluation of canine tibial plateau leveling osteotomy plates. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:908916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Keegan GM, Learmonth ID, Case CP. A systematic comparison of the actual, potential, and theoretical health effects of cobalt and chromium exposures from industry and surgical implants. Crit Rev Toxicol 2008;38:645674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Hansen T, Clermont G, Alves A, et al. Biological tolerance of different materials in bulk and nanoparticulate form in a rat model: sarcoma development by nanoparticles. J R Soc Interface 2006;3:767775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Kirkpatrick CJ, Alves A, Köhler H, et al. Biomaterial-induced sarcoma: a novel model to study preneoplastic change. Am J Pathol 2000;156:14551467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Wagner M, Klein CL, van Kooten TG, et al. Mechanisms of cell activation by heavy metal ions. J Biomed Mater Res 1998;42:443452.

  • 11. Sinibaldi K, Rosen H, Liu SK, et al. Tumors associated with metallic implants in animals. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1976;118:257266.

  • 12. Vasconcelos DM, Santos SG, Lamghari M, et al. The two faces of metal ions: from implant rejection to tissue repair/regeneration. Biomaterials 2016;84:262275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. ASTM International. ASTM Standard F745-07. Standard specification for 18 chromium-12.5 nickel-2.5 molybdenum stainless steel for cast and solution-annealed surgical implant applications (withdrawn 2012). 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 5832-1:2016. Implants for surgery—metallic materials—part 1: wrought stainless steel. 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. ASTM International. ASTM F138-13a, Standard specification for wrought 18chromium-14nickel-2.5molybdenum stainless steel bar and wire for surgical implants (UNS S31673). 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Suter T, Böhni H. The microcell technique. In: Marcus P, Mansfeld F, eds. Analytical methods in corrosion science and engineering. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2006;650693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Malekani J, Schmutz B, Gu Y, et al. Orthopedic bone plates: evolution in structure, implementation technique and biomaterial. GSTF J Engineering Tech 2012;1:135140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Hochstrasser-Kurz S, Reiss D, Suter T, et al. ICP-MS, SKPFM, XPS, and microcapillary investigation of the local corrosion mechanisms of WC-Co. J Electrochem Soc 2008;155:C415C426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Szklarska-Smialowska Z. Pitting corrosion of metals. Houston: National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1986.

  • 20. Schwenk W. Theory of stainless steel pitting. Corrosion 1964;20:129130.

  • 21. Vigorita VJ. Implant pathology. In: Vigorita VJ, ed. Orthopaedic pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008;681710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Hallab NJ, Jacobs JJ. Biologic effects of implant debris. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis 2009;67:182188.

  • 23. Morais S, Sousa JP, Fernandes MH, et al. Decreased consumption of Ca and P during in vitro biomineralization and biologically induced deposition of Ni and Cr in presence of stainless steel corrosion products. J Biomed Mater Res 1998;42:199212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Kowaleski MP, Boudrieau RJ, Beale BS, et al. Radiographic outcome and complications of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy stabilized with an anatomically contoured locking bone plate. Vet Surg 2013;42:847852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Li XQ, Hom DL, Black J, et al. Relationship between metallic implants and cancer: a case-control study in a canine population. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1993;6:610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Baniyash M. Chronic inflammation, immunosuppression and cancer: new insights and outlook. Semin Cancer Biol 2006;16:8088.

  • 27. McDonald DJ, Enneking WF, Sundaram M. Metal-associated angiosarcoma of bone: report of two cases and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2002;206–214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Sinibaldi KR, Pugh J, Rosen H, et al. Osteomyelitis and neoplasia associated with use of the Jonas intramedullary splint in small animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;181:885890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Dunn AL, Buffa EA, Hanshaw DM, et al. Osteosarcoma at the site of titanium orthopaedic implants in a dog. Aust Vet J 2012;90:3943.

  • 30. Cogan N, Baird DM, Phillips R, et al. DNA damaging bystander signalling from stem cells, cancer cells and fibroblasts after Cr(VI) exposure and its dependence on telomerase. Mutat Res 2010;683:18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Disegi JA, Eschbach L. Stainless steel in bone surgery. Injury 2000;31(suppl 4):26.

  • 32. Joeris A, Golghahn S, Rometsch E, et al. Titanium or steel as osteosynthesis material. Systemic literature search for clinical evidence [in German]. Unfallchirurg 2017;120:96102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Stevenson S. Fracture-associated sarcomas. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991;21:859872.

Advertisement

Retrospective analysis of corrosion and ion release from retrieved cast stainless steel tibia plateau leveling osteotomy plates in dogs with and without peri-implant osteosarcoma

View More View Less
  • 1 From the AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos, Switzerland.
  • | 2 From the AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos, Switzerland.
  • | 3 Anatomische Anstalt, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, 80336 Munich, Germany.
  • | 4 EMPA, Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs und Forschungsanstalt, Überlandstrasse Str. 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
  • | 5 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 7 From the AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos, Switzerland.
  • | 8 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs.

SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA).

PROCEDURES Histologic evaluations of tissue samples collected from implant sites at the time of plate retrieval were performed to confirm implant site tumor status of each dog. Surfaces and metallographic cross sections of retrieved plates were examined, and the microcell technique was used to obtain local electrochemical corrosion and ion release measurements.

RESULTS Findings indicated that all cast SS plates demonstrated high spatial variability of their electrochemical surface properties and inhomogeneous superficial and cross-sectional composition, compared with forged plates. Greater metal ion release was observed in cast plates than in forged plates and in cast plates from dogs with OSA than in cast or forged from dogs without OSA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that accumulation of metal ions from implants could be a trigger for neoplastic transformation in neighboring cells. Metal ion release caused by corrosion of implants that do not comply with recommended standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials International or the International Organization for Standardization could potentially place patients at increased risk of tumor development.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs.

SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA).

PROCEDURES Histologic evaluations of tissue samples collected from implant sites at the time of plate retrieval were performed to confirm implant site tumor status of each dog. Surfaces and metallographic cross sections of retrieved plates were examined, and the microcell technique was used to obtain local electrochemical corrosion and ion release measurements.

RESULTS Findings indicated that all cast SS plates demonstrated high spatial variability of their electrochemical surface properties and inhomogeneous superficial and cross-sectional composition, compared with forged plates. Greater metal ion release was observed in cast plates than in forged plates and in cast plates from dogs with OSA than in cast or forged from dogs without OSA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that accumulation of metal ions from implants could be a trigger for neoplastic transformation in neighboring cells. Metal ion release caused by corrosion of implants that do not comply with recommended standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials International or the International Organization for Standardization could potentially place patients at increased risk of tumor development.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 202 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 200 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (PDF 230 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S4 (PDF 248 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S5 (PDF 226 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Boudrieau (randy.boudrieau@tufts.edu).