• 1. Yoshikawa T, Mori S, Santiesteban AJ, et al. The effects of muscle fatigue on bone strain. J Exp Biol 1994;188:217233.

  • 2. Butcher MT, Hermanson JW, Ducharme NG, et al. Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions in racehorses as a sequela to muscle fatigue: a preliminary study. Equine Vet J 2007;39:540545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Takahashi T, Kasashima Y, Ueno Y. Association between race history and risk of superficial digital flexor tendon injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:9093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Hamlin MJ, Shearman J, Hopkins W. Changes in physiological parameters in overtrained Standardbred racehorses. Equine Vet J 2002;34:383388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Valentin S, Zsoldos RR. Surface electromyography in animal biomechanics: A systematic review. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2016;28:167183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Williams JM. Electromyography in the horse: a useful technology? J Equine Vet Sci 2017;60:4358.

  • 7. Clayton H, van Weeren PR. Measurement techniques for gait analysis. In: Back W, Clayton H, eds. Equine locomotion. 2nd ed. London: Saunders, 2013;3160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Kamen G. Electromyographic kinesiology. In: Robertson DGE, Caldwell GE, Hamill J, et al. eds. Research methods in biomechanics. 2nd ed. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics, 2014;179201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Vanhatalo A, Poole DC, DiMenna FJ, et al. Muscle fiber recruitment and the slow component of O2 uptake: constant work rate vs. all-out sprint exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2011;300:R700R707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Ament W, Bonga GJ, Hof AL, et al. EMG median power frequency in an exhausting exercise. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 1993;3:214220.

  • 11. Komi PV, Tesch P. EMG frequency spectrum, muscle structure, and fatigue during dynamic contractions in man. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1979;42:4150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Colborne GR, Birtles D, Cacchione I. Electromyographic and kinematic indicators of fatigue in horses: a pilot study. Equine Vet J Suppl 2001;33:8993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Cheung TK, Warren L, Lawrence L, et al. Electromyographic activity of the long digital extensor muscle in the exercising Thoroughbred horse. Equine Vet J 1998;30:251255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Takahashi T. The effect of age on the racing speed of Thoroughbred racehorses. J Equine Sci 2015;26:4348.

  • 15. Clayton HM, Hodson E, Lanovaz J, et al. The hindlimb in walking horses: 2. Net joint moments and joint powers. Equine Vet J 2001;33:4448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Dutto DJ, Hoyt DF, Clayton HM, et al. Joint work and power for both the forelimb and hindlimb during trotting in the horse. J Exp Biol 2006;209:39903999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Audigié F, Pourcelot P, Degueurce C, et al. Kinematics of the equine back: flexion-extension movements in sound trotting horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 1999;30:210213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Robert C, Audigie F, Valette JP, et al. Effects of treadmill speed on the mechanics of the back in the trotting saddlehorse. Equine Vet J Suppl 2001;33:154159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Kawai M, Minami Y, Sayama Y, et al. Muscle fiber population and biochemical properties of whole body muscles in Thoroughbred horses. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2009;292:16631669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Eto D, Yamano S, Kasashima Y, et al. Effect of controlled exercise on middle gluteal muscle fibre composition in Thoroughbred foals. Equine Vet J 2003;35:676680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Takahashi T, Matsui A, Mukai K, et al. The effects of inclination (up and down) of the treadmill on the electromyogram activities of the forelimb and hind limb muscles at a walk and a trot in Thoroughbred horses. J Equine Sci 2014;25:7377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Nukaga H, Takeda T, Nakajima K, et al. Masseter muscle activity in track and field athletes: A pilot study. Open Dent J 2016;10:474485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Payne RC, Hutchinson JR, Robilliard JJ, et al. Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses (Equus caballus). J Anat 2005;206:557574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Yamano S, Eto D, Hiraga A, et al. Recruitment pattern of muscle fibre type during high intensity exercise (60–100% VO2 max) in Thoroughbred horses. Res Vet Sci 2006;80:109115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Votion D-M, Navet R, Lacombe VA, et al. Muscle energetics in exercising horses. Equine Comp Exerc Physiol 2007;4:105118.

  • 26. Parsons KJ, Pfau T, Wilson AM. High-speed gallop locomotion in the thoroughbred racehorse. I. The effect of incline on stride parameters. J Exp Biol 2008;211:935944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. López-Rivero J, Serrano A, Diz A, et al. Variability of muscle fibre composition and fibre size in the horse gluteus medius: an enzyme-histochemical and morphometric study. J Anat 1992;181:110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Wickler SJ, Greene H, Egan K, et al. Stride parameters and hindlimb length in horses fatigued on a treadmill and at an endurance ride. Equine Vet J Suppl 2006;38:6064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Johnston C, Gottlieb-Vedi M, Drevemo S, et al. The kinematics of loading and fatigue in the Standardbred trotter. Equine Vet J Suppl 1999;31:249253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Ronéus N, Essén-Gustavsson B, Johnston C, et al. Lactate response to maximal exercise on the track: relation to muscle characteristics and kinematic variables. Equine Vet J 1995;27:191194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Biewener AA. Muscle-tendon stresses and elastic energy storage during locomotion in the horse. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1998;120:7387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Minetti AE, Ardigo L, Reinach E, et al. The relationship between mechanical work and energy expenditure of locomotion in horses. J Exp Biol 1999;202:23292338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Tokuriki M, Aoki O. Electromyographic activity of the hindlimb muscles during the walk, trot and canter. Equine Vet J 1995;27:152155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Licka TF, Peham C, Frey A. Electromyographic activity of the longissimus dorsi muscles in horses during trotting on a treadmill. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:155158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. de Cocq P, Weeren Pv, Back W. Effects of girth, saddle and weight on movements of the horse. Equine Vet J 2004;36:758763.

  • 36. Fruehwirth B, Peham C, Scheidl M, et al. Evaluation of pressure distribution under an English saddle at walk, trot and canter. Equine Vet J 2004;36:754757.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Doud JR, Walsh J. Muscle fatigue and muscle length interaction: effect on the EMG frequency components. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;35:331339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Masuda K, Masuda T, Sadoyama T, et al. Changes in surface EMG parameters during static and dynamic fatiguing contractions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 1999;9:3946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. De Luca CJ, Gilmore LD, Kuznetsov M, et al. Filtering the surface EMG signal: Movement artifact and baseline noise contamination. J Biomech 2010;43:15731579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Stewart D, Macaluso A, De Vito GD. The effect of an active warm-up on surface EMG and muscle performance in healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89:509513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Harrison AP. A more precise, repeatable and diagnostic alternative to surface electromyography – an appraisal of clinical utility of acoustic myography. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2018;38:312325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Riis KH, Harrison AP, Riis-Olesen K. Non-invasive assessment of equine muscular function: a case study. Open Vet J 2013;3:8084.

Advertisement

Electromyographic changes in hind limbs of Thoroughbreds with fatigue induced by treadmill exercise

Yuji Takahashi DVM1, Kazutaka Mukai DVM, PhD2, Akira Matsui PhD3, Hajime Ohmura DVM, PhD4, and Toshiyuki Takahashi DVM, PhD5
View More View Less
  • 1 Sports Science Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
  • | 2 Sports Science Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
  • | 3 Sports Science Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
  • | 4 Sports Science Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.
  • | 5 Sports Science Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To quantify fatigue-induced electromyographic changes in hind limb muscles in horses.

ANIMALS 8 Thoroughbreds.

PROCEDURES The left and right hind limb longissimus dorsi, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles were instrumented for surface electromyography. Hoof strain gauges were attached to confirm stride cycle. Each horse was galloped on a treadmill (grade, 3%) at a constant speed (12.6 to 14.7 m/s) to achieve fatigue after approximately 360 seconds. Before and after this exercise, the horses were trotted at 3.5 m/s. At 30-second intervals during galloping an integrated electromyography (iEMG) value for a stride and the median frequency of muscle discharge (MF) in each limb were measured. The mean of stride frequency (SF), iEMG value, and MF of 5 consecutive strides at the start and end of galloping for the lead and trailing limbs were compared. For trotting, these variables were compared at 60 seconds before and after galloping.

RESULTS The mean ± SD value for SF decreased over time (2.14 ± 0.06 to 2.05 ± 0.07 stride/s). In both the lead and trailing limbs, fatigue decreased the iEMG values of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles but not those of the longissimus dorsi and tensor fasciae latae muscles. The MF did not change for any muscle during galloping with fatigue. The SF, iEMG value, and MF did not change during trotting with fatigue.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fatigue induced by high-speed galloping decreased the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles' iEMG values in Thoroughbreds. Fatigue of these less fatigue-resistant hind limb muscles would affect a horse's speed.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Takahashi (yuji_takahashi@equinst.go.jp).